The Addiction Psychologist
By Samuel Acuff and Noah Emery
The Addiction PsychologistNov 16, 2023
Dr. Jeff Boissoneault - Chronic Pain and Substance Use
Chronic pain commonly co-occurs with substance use disorder and may get in the way of recovery goals and valued living. Despite this, chronic pain can go untreated and unmanaged in treatment settings, and many people with substance use disorders struggle to get treatment for pain due to addiction stigma. Dr. Jeff Boissoneault provides an overview of the intersection between pain and substance use and makes the case for why scientists and clinicians should prioritize measuring and treating chronic pain. Dr. Boissoneault is an associate professor in the department of anesthesiology at the University of Minnesota Medical School.
Dr. Stacey Daughters - Reward Processing and the Intersection between Neuroscience and Psychosocial Treatments
Despite some consequences, substances can provide immediate and certain reward in the different forms, including but not limited to euphoria, pain relief, energy, alleviation of emotional suffering, and social connection. These rewards can compete with non-substance activities that are enjoyable and rewarding, and understanding changes in reward processing over the course of substance use disorder severity may provide critical insights into how to bolster recovery. Dr. Stacey Daughters provides an overview of reward processing in substance use disorders, and explores ways in which neuroscience treatment techniques may complement existing evidence-based psychotherapy treatments to bolster outcomes for people recovering from substance use disorders. Dr. Daughters is a professor in the Department of Psychology and Neuroscience at the University of North Carolina, at Chapel Hill.
Tessa Nalven - Multiracial Health Disparities in Substance Use
Epidemiological surveys suggest that prevalence of harmful patterns of substance use is greatest among Multiracial populations relative to other racial demographic groups. Yet, most studies either do not report full racial demographics or under-sample people who identify as multiracial. In this episode, Tessa Nalven illuminates the importance of studying multiracial populations, discusses theoretical mechanisms for disparities, and provides recommendations for research with multiracial populations. Tessa Nalven is a currently finishing her doctoral degree in clinical psychology at the University of Rhode Island. She is completing her clinical internship year at the Boston VA. Tessa was the recipient of the 2022 Division 50 DEI Student Recognition Award.
Dr. Justin Strickland - The Twin Methamphetamine and Opioid Epidemics
In recent years, there has been a dramatic rise in methamphetamine use among people who use opioids. What is driving this effect? How do these drugs interact? Do they serve substitute or complementary functions? Dr. Justin Strickland summarizes the state of the science and outlines potential solutions. Dr. Strickland is a psychologist and assistant professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. You can learn more about his work here.
Dr. Rachel Winograd - Evidence-based Harm Reduction Approaches to Opioid Use Disorder
During the past several decades, the United States has experienced several distinct waves of opioid epidemic, prompting those providing services to think of novel ways to provide services. to those in need. Dr. Rachel Winograd found her passion for community-based harm reduction services in St. Louis, a city ravaged by wave after wave of the opioid epidemic, and quickly found her place within a network of harm reductionists, community-based providers, and policy makers in Missouri with a common goal. In this episode, Dr. Winograd teaches us about the opioid epidemic and shares about the work she and her team has done to test and disseminate evidence-based harm reduction services in the greater St. Louis area. Dr. Winograd is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychological Sciences and the Missouri Institute of Mental Health at the University of Missouri-St Louis. To learn more, please visit www.mimhaddisci.org.
Dr. Sam Meisel - Social Factors in Adolescent Substance Use
For many, the onset of substance use occurs in adolescence. A subset of adolescents who use substances develop substance use disorders later in life, and some even develop harmful patterns of drinking while still in the developmental stage of adolescence. Why is substance use initiation likely in this age group, and what is the developmental function of substance use behavior? What are the interpersonal processes that influence substance use, and how do relationships with friends and family change during this critical developmental stage? Is it possible to leverage these interpersonal processes to bolster treatment initiation and success? Dr. Sam Meisel answers these questions and more as he discusses the complex social environment of the adolescent and it's pertinence to understanding substance use. Dr. Sam Meisel is a Research Scientist at Bradley Hospital and the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies in the Brown University School of Public Health.
Dr. Bill Stoops - Cocaine and Cocaine Use Disorder
Dr. Bill Stoops provides an overview of the pharmacology, effects, and prevalence of cocaine, in addition to treatments for cocaine use disorder. Dr. Bill Stoops is an Associate Director for Clinical Science in the Substance Use Priority Research Area, and a Professor in the Departments of Behavioral Science, Psychiatry, and Psychology, and in the Center for Drug and Alcohol Research, at the University of Kentucky.
Dr. Mark Prince - Protective Behavioral Strategies
Alcohol and other drugs are sometimes accompanied by harms from use. However, use only accounts for some of the variance in substance use harms, and their are strategies, and harms can be reduced through other means aside from reductions in substance use. This is particularly important because many who use substances do not have a desire to quit or cut down on their use, even if they do experience harms. In this episode, Dr. Mark Prince discusses the literature on protective behavioral strategies, or any behavioral strategy that may reduce the harm of substance use, often through reduction of risky behaviors while using (i.e., drinking and driving) or through changes in the way the substance is consumed (i.e., drinking water in between alcoholic drinks). Dr. Prince is an Associate Professor and the Associate Director of Addiction Counseling in the Department of Psychology at Colorado State University.
Click here for Dr. Prince's paper quantifying the variance unexplained by alcohol consumption alone.
Dr. Jen Read - Alcohol-related Sexual Assault
Sexual assault is a massive problem on college campuses, and alcohol is involved in some form or another in more than half of cases reported. Dr. Jen Read talks about her work to understand the complex social environment within which sexual assault often takes place, and her work to design interventions to reduce the rate of sexual assault. Unfortunately, the evidence suggests that intervention and prevention approaches targeting the perpetrators do not work. However, sexual assaults often take place in complex social environments, and interventions may be able to leverage friendships to create more explicit conversations about how to protect one another during a night out. Dr. Jen Read is a renowned scientist known for her work illuminating harms and developing intervention approaches to reduce drinking among college students. Dr. Read is a Professor and Chair in the Department of Psychology at the University at Buffalo.
Dr. Adrian Bravo - Studying Addiction across Cultures
Dr. Ana Abrantes - Exercise and Substance Use Treatment
Regular exercise confers many benefits: It will increase your mood, decrease fatigue, and increase the quality of your sleep, among others. But how can exercise impact substance use? Is exercise an effective adjunct to treatment? If so, how do we encourage a behavior that, for many, is so hard to maintain? Dr. Ana Abrantes discusses the research on exercise and substance use treatment, with a particular focus on making exercise accessible. Dr. Ana Abrantes is a Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior in the Alpert Medical School of Brown University, and the Co-Director of Behavioral Medicine and Addictions Research at Butler Hospital.
Dr. Kirsten Smith - Kratom
Have you ever passed a sign on the road advertising for something called "Kratom"? or, perhaps, a friend or family member has mentioned trying it. What is it? An herbal supplement, or pharmacological drug? As addiction scientists, epidemiologists, and clinicians, do we have anything to be concerned about? In this episode, Dr. Kirsten Smith catches us up on what is known about Kratom, including the pharmacology, effects, and prevalence of this emerging substance. Dr. Kirsten Smith is a Post-doctoral Fellow in the Real-world Assessment, Prediction, and Treatment Unit at the National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program, and an incoming Assistant Professor at Johns Hopkins University.
CPA 2022 - Early Career Award Sneak Peak!
ARE YOU READY FOR CPA 2022?
The first in-person CPA conference since 2019 is happening this weekend, April 7-9, in Portland, OR. In addition to amazing networking opportunities, there will be incredible sessions and posters presented by experts ranging from early to late career, studying addiction and related topics. On this episode, we highlight the award-winning work of five early career scholars who will be presenting their research in Portland. Tune in for a sneak preview, and get hyped for CPA! Timestamps and presentation titles below.
1:34 - 10:44: Dr. Jevon Rice - Training in Substance Use Disorders Among Black Emerging Adults for Psychologists
10:44 - 19:27: Victoria Chentsova - Internalizing Symptoms, Rumination, and Problematic Social Networking Site Use: A Cross-national Examination
19:27 - 32:01: Peter Soyster - Personalized Machine Learning Models to Predict Future Alcohol Use
32:01 - 36:30: Madison Smith - Which Types of Substance-Related Legal Problems are Most Predictive of Arrest?
36:30 - 47:51: Melissa Schick - Gender Parity and Homophily in the Drug and Alcohol Dependence Editorial Process
Dr. Mary Beth Miller - Sleep and Substance Use
Sleep is a critical function that can be disrupted by substance use. In fact, the majority of people with an alcohol use disorder report insomnia or sleep disturbance. So, what is good sleep, and why does it seem that substance use disrupts it? Can you treat the sleep, even if the drinking doesn't change? Does cannabis actually help sleep? Dr. Mary Beth Miller answers these questions and more, in our latest episode on the relationship between sleep and substance use. Dr. Mary Beth Miller is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Missouri School of Medicine.
Dr. Barbara McCrady - Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy
Persistent alcohol use can, at times, interfere with intimate relationships and create conflict. The dynamic of the couple can be a source of tension and may create a loop that can perpetuate alcohol use. However, intimate couples relationships can also be great supports in the recovery from alcohol use disorder. Dr. Barbara McCrady talks about decades of research and development of Alcohol Behavioral Couples Therapy (ABCT), which attempts to target changes in alcohol use by bolstering the couples relationship and using the partner to help work toward behavior change. Dr. Barbara McCrady Professor Emerita of Psychology and the Center on Alcohol, Substance Use, and Addictions (CASAA) at the University of New Mexico. Here she is pictured with her beloved horse, Skylark.
Dr. David Eddie - Brain-Body Connections
Alcohol use produces changes in the cardiovascular system affecting heart rate. These systematic differences in heart rate can, in turn, function as a biological signature (i.e., biomarker) of dysfunction among those with alcohol use disorder (AUD). In addition to assessing difficulties, understanding heart rate modulation may have important treatment implications. Dr. David Eddie talks about heart rate variability as a biomarker of AUD and his work developing behavioral skills that can target heart rate using biofeedback to improve AUD treatment outcomes. Dr. Eddie is an Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School and a Research Scientist at both Massachusetts General Hospital’s Center for Addiction Medicine and Recovery Research Institute.
Dr. Matthew Johnson - Psychedelics: History and Therapeutic Value
Most commonly known psychedelics are considered schedule 1 substances by the controlled substances act, meaning they is no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse. However, there is emerging evidence that psychedelics may have some therapeutic value. Dr. Matthew Johnson discusses the history of psychedelic research in the United States and his work on understanding abuse potential and therapeutic value of one specific psychedelic, psilocybin. Matt is the Susan Hill Ward Professor in Psychedelics and Consciousness and Professor of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Johns Hopkins.
Dr. Robert Miranda - Treating Substance Use Disorder in Adolescence
A great deal of our research focuses on adults with substance use disorder. Yet, many who develop severe substance use disorder begin during adolescence. What types of psychosocial treatments are available for adolescents? What about pharmacological treatments? Does combining psychosocial and pharmacological treatments increase efficacy? In this episode, Dr. Robert Miranda discusses treatments available for adolescents and the complications of developing these treatments. Dr. Robert Miranda is a Professor of Psychiatry and Human Behavior in the Warren Alpert Medical School, a Professor of Behavioral and Social Sciences in the School of Public Health, and the Training Director of the NIAAA/NIDA Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Center for Alcohol and Addiction Studies at Brown University. He is also the Clinical Director of the Vista Intensive Outpatient Program at Bradley Hospital in Providence, Rhode Island.
Policy Brief: Dr. Adam Leventhal Discusses the FDA Authorization of the Marketing of Three New E-Cigarette Products
On this new Addiction Psychologist segment, we talk to experts about new policy developments to get a better understanding of the implications for our work, our clients, and our personal lives. On this episode, we talk with Dr. Adam Leventhal about the October 12, 2021 announcement that the FDA has authorized the marketing of three new tobacco products, marking the first set of electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products ever to be authorized by the FDA through the Premarket Tobacco Product Application (PMTA) pathway. Dr. Adam Leventhal is a Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Psychology in the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California and a member of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee for the Food and Drug Administration.
You can read the full FDA press release here. In the days after the recording of this episode, the FDA made a similar announcement authorizing several oral tobacco products, suggesting that authorizations may occur at a rapid pace in the coming weeks.
Dr. Hollis Karoly - Cannabinoids in Cannabis: CBD and THC
Cannabis is becoming increasingly tolerated, both culturally and legally, across the United States and other parts of the world. Yet, there are at least 100 different psychoactive cannabinoids in any strain of cannabis. What do we know about these cannabinoids? Dr. Hollis Karoly talks about the two most common cannabinoids, THC and CBD, and what the scientific evidence suggests about their harms and benefits. She then discusses the connection between cannabinoids and alcohol use. Dr. Hollis Karoly is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Psychology at Colorado State University.
Dr. Eric Garland - Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement
Addiction is characterized in part by habitual drug seeking and use and diminished pleasure from nondrug alternatives. Both may serve as critical points of intervention in the treatment of substance use. Mindfulness, the practice of intentional awareness, may be a useful tool to help clients notice habitual behavior and savor nondrug alternative rewards. Dr. Eric Garland discusses integrating mindfulness with cognitive behavioral therapy techniques to create Mindfulness Oriented Recovery Enhancement. Dr. Eric Garland is the Distinguished Endowed Chair in Research, Distinguished Professor, and Associate Dean for Research in the University of Utah College of Social Work. He is also the Director of the Center on Mindfulness and Integrative Health Intervention Development (C-MIIND). Find out more about his website.
Intervention/Treatment for Substance Use Disorder, Part 3: Dr. Stephen Higgins - Contingency Management
Contingency management is a therapy based in behaviorism in which individuals are 'reinforced' for evidence of positive behavioral change. In this episode, Dr. Stephen Higgins explains contingency management and outlines the support for its efficacy. He also discusses why it hasn't been adopted more widely, despite its strong efficacy, and why we should be doing more contingency management. Dr. Higgins is the Virginia H. Donaldson Professor of Translational Science, Vice Chair of Psychiatry, Professor of Psychiatry, Professor of Psychological Science, and Director of Vermont Center on Behavior and Health at The University of Vermont.
The recent systematic review and meta-analysis, led by Dr. Hypatia A. Bolivar and published in JAMA Psychiatry, referred to in the podcast can be found here.
NIAAA/NIDA Student/ECR Poster Session - APA convention 2021
Listen to the future voices of addiction research. Ten students/ECRs discuss their excellent work which will also be presented live, along with other excellent research, on August 13, 2021 during the NIAAA/NIDA student/ECR poster session. The poster session is sponsered by NIDA/NIAAA, and all researchers were provided travel awards by either NIAAA or NIDA. Primary presenters, poster titles, and timestamps for posters below.
To learn more about the poser session or to sign up to attend this free live event, please click here.
1. Julie Wojtaszek (2:09-7:10) - Changes and moderating influences on addictive and mental health symptoms associated with COVID-19
2. Tessa Frohe (7:10-17:50) - Qualitative Findings from a Smartphone Intervention Application for Individuals on Medication for Opioid Use Disorder: How User-Centered Design Offers Promise for Harm Reduction
3. Nathan Kearns (17:50-28:17) - Effect of Trauma-Related Stress After Alcohol Consumption on Perceived Likelihood of Negative Consequences and Willingness to Drive
4. Satveer Kler (28:17-33:37) - Are Social Support and Racialized Heterosexism Predictors of Alcohol Dependence among QTBIPOC?
5. Courtney Doxbeck (33:37-41:49) - Exploring Social Norms, Pandemic Partying, and E-cigarette Use in United States College Students
6. Benjamin Shepherd (41:49-52:01) - Suicidal Ideation, Substance Use Disorders, and Co-occurrences among Sexual Minority People of Color
7. Kirsten Smith (52:01-1:02:11) - Psychosocial and substance use correlates of lifetime Kratom use in a large online sample
8. Andrea Vásquez Ferreiro (1:02:11-1:09:55) - Relations among Key Correlates in a Mobile Attentional Bias Retraining Study for Opioid Use Disorder
9. Irene Pericot-Valvedre (1:09:55-1:18:09) - Diagnostic Accuracy of the BDI-II and its Relationship to Direct-Acting Antiviral Adherence: Implications for Hepatitis C treatment Among People Who Inject Drugs on Medications for Opioid Use Disorder
10. Alexandra Palmisano (1:18:09-1:28:21) - Examining the Association between PTSD Symptom Heterogeneity and Alcohol Use Disorder in Veterans
Intervention/Treatment for Substance Use Disorder, Part 2: Dr. Kate McHugh - Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorder
A great deal of individual's require substance use treatment that is more active than brief motivational interventions, yet are unable or unwilling to attend long-term inpatient treatment. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) for is an effective treatment for substance use disorders. CBT for substance use disorder targets emotions, cognitions, and behaviors associated with substance use and teach skills in order to reduce use. Dr. Kate McHugh discusses CBT for substance use disorder, including her work to increase its overall impact. Kate is the Director of the Stress, Anxiety, and Substance Use Laboratory and Director of Behavioral Therapy Development, Training and Research at McLean Hospital. She is also an Associate Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School.
Intervention/Treatment for Substance Use Disorder, Part 1: Dr. Jim Murphy - Brief Motivational Interventions
College students drink at higher levels than most other groups; yet, their motivation to reduce drinking is often low because alcohol consumption provides salient social benefits. Despite these benefits, emerging adulthood is a critical developmental period that can impact the likelihood of alcohol use disorder over the lifespan. Dr. Jim Murphy talks broadly about brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for college populations, which typically deliver personalized feedback in a motivational interviewing style to increase motivation to change drinking practices among college students. Jim also discusses the limitations to BMIs and discusses his work to try to extend their efficacy. Dr. Jim Murphy is the Dunavant Professor in the Department of Psychology in the University of Memphis.
This is the first episode in a three part series on intervention and treatment, which will be followed by episodes on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Contingency Management.
Dr. John Kelly - Stigma in Addiction and Courses of Recovery
Addiction is among the most stigmatized of all social/health problems. Language surrounding clinical care in addiction is unlike any other area of medicine in that it often uses terms that are pejorative and lack specificity. In this episode, Dr. John Kelly talks about why we need to “stop talking dirty” in addiction research and treatment. He also discussed the results of the National Recovery Study – the only epidemiological of people in recovery ever conducted. Ever wonder how many serious attempts it takes to resolve an alcohol or drug problem, on average? He will cover that and more in this cannot-miss episode. Dr. Kelly is an endowed Professor of Psychiatry in Addiction Medicine at Harvard Medical School, the Founder and Director of the Recovery Research Institute at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), the Program Director of the Addiction Recovery Management Service (ARMS) and Associate Director of the Center for Addiction Medicine (CAM) at MGH.
Follow this link to sign the Action Network petition to remove the word "abuse" from national institutes: https://actionnetwork.org/petitions/change-the-name-end-the-stigma
Melissa Schick - Substance Use among Indigenous Populations
Across substances, rates of use are high in indigenous populations across North America. Melissa Schick discusses the historical and ongoing trauma experienced by these populations and why it might be related to higher rates of substance use. Melissa also discusses combining strength-based approaches, from the perspective of positive psychology with community participatory research to provide culturally humble treatment and interventions. Melissa Schick is a Doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology at the University of Rhode Island and the Senior Student Representative to the executive committee for the Society for Addiction Psychology.
Dr. Debra Kaysen - PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorder
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) often co-occur. A great deal of research has attempted to understand the nature of this relationship. Is PTSD a risk factor for AUD? Is high risk drinking a risk factor for PTSD? These questions can help us understand which of the two disorders to target first. Dr. Debra Kaysen talks about her research on treatments for co-occurring PTSD and AUD, focusing special attention toward state of the art science on ordering effects. Dr. Debra Kaysen is a clinical psychologist and Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University. Dr. Kaysen’s area of specialty both in research and clinical work is in treatment of those who have experienced traumatic events including PTSD, mood and substance-use disorders. Debra is one of the leading researchers in adaptation of evidence-based PTSD treatments to increase access to evidence based treatments for diverse populations (Iraq, Democratic Republic of Congo, Native Americans), comorbidities (alcohol use disorders, HIV risk behavior), and for use in non-specialty care settings (digital health, telepsychology and primary care settings). Debra is currently the Immediate Past President of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ISTSS).
Laura Lesnewich - Biomarkers of AUD
Biomarkers are objective signs or indications of a clinical state which can be measured reliably and accurately. Biomarkers are important because they can reveal mechanisms of behavior and help inform treatments. Laura Lesnewich talks about Biomarkers for Alcohol Use Disorder and her work identifying Biomarkers related to executive functioning deficits. Laura is a Doctoral candidate in Clinical Psychology at Rutgers and a Predoctoral intern at the Coatesville VA Medical Center.
CPA 2021 Poster Session
Listen to the future voices of addiction research. Seven students/ECRs discuss their excellent work which will also be presented live, during CPA 2021 from March 17-19. All interviewees were winners of the CPA registration award. Primary presenters, poster titles, and timestamps for posters below. Registration is still open: https://addictionpsychology.org/cpa
Neo Gebru (1:48-10:20) - “That’s Pot Culture Right There”: Purchasing Behaviors of Recreational Marijuana Users
Hallie Jordan: (10:20-18:55) - Psychometric Validation of the Protective Drinking Practices Scale in a National Sample of Students
Dr. Jenni Teeters (18:55-26:24) - A Mobile-phone Based Intervention Is Associated With Reductions In Driving After Cannabis Use Among Near Daily Cannabis Users
Dr. Emily Hennessy (26:24-36:59) - Parents and Family Mechanisms of Social Recovery Capital for Youth Recovery
Marie O'Hanrahan (36:49-42:10) - Factors Predicting Substance Use Relapse: Service-Providers Perceptions
Dr. Frank Schwabel (42:10-48:32) - Budding Recursive Partitioning Tress to Identify Predictors of Cannabis-related Outcomes (http://mateolab.yolasite.com/openscience.php)
Thalia Sullivan (48:32-55:03) - Validation of the Daily Sessions, Frequency, Age of Onset, and Quantity of Cannabis Use Inventory Among an Illicit Cannabis Using Population
Dr. Lorraine Collins - Ecological Momentary Assessment and Cannabis Use
A great deal of the literature delineating the experience of addiction uses cross-sectional survey data or longitudinal data separated by wide gaps of time. Although this research is critical and is useful for answer certain questions, these research designs are unable to answer certain questions, such as about proximal contextual factors associated with within-person differences in substance use, or about psychological processes that shift moment to moment that may increase risk of substance engagement. Dr. Lorraine Collins talks about her seminal work applying ecological momentary assessment methodologies to alcohol and cannabis. Dr. Lorraine Collins is the Associate Dean for Research in the School of Public Health and Health Professions, and a Professor in the Department of Community Health and Health Behavior at the University at Buffalo.
Dezarie Moskal - Pain and Substance Use
Alleviation of pain, whether emotional or physical, is among the most common reasons for substance use. Despite this, very little experimental work has been done to delineate a causal effect of pain. Dezarie Moskal talks about her experimental work on the effect of pain on substance use and a recent meta-analysis on the effect of endocannabinoids on the alleviation of pain. Finally, she discusses the role of psychotherapy in alleviating pain. Dez is a doctoral candidate in clinical psychology at Syracuse University and a predoctoral internship at the VA Maryland Health Care System/University of Maryland School of Medicine Psychology Internship Consortium. Dez is also a proud Division 50 student member.
Dr. Alan Budney - Cannabis Legalization
In December of 2020, the US House of Representatives passed the Marijuana Opportunities Reinvestment and Expungement (MORE) act, which removes marijuana from the list of scheduled substances under the Controlled Substances Act and eliminates criminal penalties for an individual who manufactures, distributes, or possesses marijuana. Although the bill is unlikely to survive the Senate, it seems to be a matter of time before some version of this bill does pass. There has been growing interest in decriminalizing and legalizing cannabis in on the state level in the United States and in many countries around the world, and many around the country support the action. It is increasingly important to understand the impact of cannabis legalization. How will the impact of federal legislation be different from that of state legislation? How will cannabis legislation impact the epidemiological harm of cannabis use? How can psychologists contribute to this legislation to minimize costs and maximize benefits oft he legislation? Dr. Alan Budney discusses the likely effects of cannabis legislation and outlines what we still do not know about cannabis. Dr. Alan Budney is a Professor of Psychiatry in the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth College.
Kyle Walters - Self-regulation and Substance Use
Self control is thought to be closely associated with the ability to abstain or regulate substance use and is just one aspect of self-regulation, or the ability to organize behavior toward a goal. Many have suggested that self-regulation is damaged in those with chronic patterns of harmful substance use. However, it has also been noted that substance use itself is a highly goal directed behavior and requires self-regulation. Kyle Walters discusses his work on the interaction between self-regulation and the environment and suggests that this relationship may not be as simple as we once thought. Kyle also briefly discusses his forays into Network Analysis as an alternative approach to traditional conceptualizations of psychopathology. Kyle Walters is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Psychology at the University of South Dakota.
Dr. Matt Field - Compulsive and Choice Models of Addiction
There are two competing paradigms attempting to explain the phenomena of addiction: Addiction as compulsion and addiction as choice. The compulsion model describes addiction as a brain disease in which alcohol and drug use cause neuroadaptations, resulting in uncontrolled drug seeking behavior. The choice model describes addiction as pathology of reinforcement that is contextually dependent upon the availability of meaningful and rewarding alternatives in the choice environment. Dr. Matt Field describes each model and their respective bodies of research. Dr. Matt Field is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at University of Sheffield.
Tori Votaw - Identifying Addiction Phenotypes to Inform Precision Medicine
Research and theory have led to the development of empirically-supported options for SUD treatment, both psychosocial and pharmacological. However, these treatments only have moderate efficacy/effectiveness, and some aspects of treatments may be more implicated for some than others. Tori Votaw talks about precision medicine, which is determining which treatments work best for subgroups of individuals. Specifically, Tori discusses her work in understanding phenotypes of addiction such as negative emotionality and executive functioning that may help classify individuals into different specific treatment approaches. Tori Votaw is a graduate student and T32 predoctoral fellow in the Department of Psychology at the University of New Mexico.
Dr. Adam Leventhal - E-cigarettes and Vaping
E-cigarettes have increased in prevalence over the past decade and provided a powerful alternative to tobacco products like cigarettes. E-cigarettes have the potential to be addictive in part because qualities that are typically inherent to a substance (e.g., flavor, "harshness") can actually be modified to increase the reinforcing efficacy of the nicotine from the e-cigarettes. However, the full picture of both acute and chronic consequences are yet to be understood. Dr. Adam Leventhal provides an overview of the science of e-cigarettes and vaping, including what we now about it's harm and addictive potential. He also discusses his work regarding the regulation "sweet spot": making it appealing enough for cigarette smokers to want to start using e-cigarettes, but aversive enough to prevent uptake among at-risk groups, such as adolescents. He also discusses how to develop a research career that has a focus on public health impact. Dr. Adam Leventhal is a Professor in the Department of Preventive Medicine and Psychology in the Keck School of Medicine at the University of Southern California. He is also the Director of the USC Institute for Addiction Science and Health, Emotion & Addiction Laboratory; a new Fellows Chair in the APA Division on Psychopharmacology and Substance Abuse (Division 28); and a recently appointed member of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee for the Food and Drug Administration.
Cassie Boness - Diagnostic Issues in Alcohol Use Disorder
Alcohol use is a burden on the healthcare system and is among the leading causes of preventable deaths in the United States. There are eleven possible Alcohol use Disorder (AUD) symptoms and only two are required, resulting in a wide range of possible combinations of symptoms and thus widely divergent profiles of individuals with AUD. Further, not all of the AUD symptoms are equally severe, and two individuals with two symptoms each may have completely different levels of severity. Despite these issues, many of our research and clinical decisions are made based on AUD clinical cutoffs. Cassie Boness talks about her work in understanding the diagnostic issues with AUD, including how she has used cognitive interviewing to better understand how people are understanding the symptoms of AUD. Cassie Boness is an intern at Western Psychiatric Hospital at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center.
Dr. Ayana Jordan - Racism and Substance Use in America
Racial disparities in prevalence rates of harmful substance use can largely be attributed to social determinants of health, which are perpetuated by racist policies that have been implemented over the past century. The clearest example can be found in the policies related to Nixon's War on Drugs, which criminalized drug use, increased drug enforcement forces across the nation, and specifically targeted Black communities. More generally, the definition of addiction and its recovery has been determined by white scientists, religious figures, and politicians without regard to the Black community or other groups. Dr. Ayana Jordan discusses racist drug policy and the problems facing individuals in the Black community who struggle with addiction. She then discusses her work that seeks to eliminate disparities: first, by creating scaffolding for those going through white-centric treatment; and second, by creating treatments designed for Black individuals. Dr. Ayana Jordan is an Assistant Professor and the Associate Residency Program Director in the Department of Psychiatry at Yale University School of Medicine. She is also an Addiction Psychiatrist and Attending Physician at Connecticut Mental Health Center.
Keanan Joyner - Increasing Representation for BIPOC Scholars
The academy systematically excludes members of certain groups, leading to underrepresentation of those who identify as of Black, indigenous, and people of color. Keanan Joyner discusses the leaky pipeline and provides specific actionable steps that can help increase representation in your academic department. Keanan Joyner is a doctoral student at Florida State University and a Ford Fellow.
Keanan Joyner - Alternative Rewards and Multiple Methods
Some research demonstrates that rats will self-administer dangerously high levels of drugs under certain schedules of reinforcement. However, much of this research has been done under conditions of depravity, in which the rat does not have any access to alternatives. Humans almost always make choices between a menu of options, suggesting a different, more dynamic choice context with competing reinforcers. Keanan discusses his work in this area, in addition to the importance of confirming self-report findings by using multimethod approaches, such as psychophysiology. Keanan Joyner is a doctoral student at Florida State University and a Ford Fellow.
Dr. Katie Witkiewitz - Non-abstinent Recovery
Most definitions of recovery from addiction require abstinence from the problem substance. Dr. Katie Witkiewitz discusses the limitations of abstinence-based models of recovery and describe why non-abstinent models may have a positive public health impact. Namely, Katie's research suggests that many people regain functioning in interpersonal, occupational, and health domains without achieving full abstinence, and that these definitions actually prevent people from seeking treatment. Katie outlines the benefits of incorporating non-abstinent recovery options alongside the dominant abstinent model, and also shares NIAAA's preliminary definition of recovery from alcohol. Dr. Katie Witkiewitz is the Regent's Professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of New Mexico. She is also a Scientist at the Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse & Addictions (CASAA), and the Technology Committee Chair for the Society of Addiction Psychology.
Dr. Noel Vest - Fair Chances and Collegiate Recovery Programs
Systematic barriers can prevent educational and occupational attainment for those with substantive substance use or incarceration histories. For example, the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994 prevents those with a felony from receiving a Pell grant, effectively preventing college entry for most. Further, reporting that you have been arrested and/or convicted of a crime on college applications prevents many from applying, even though applications are rarely rejected for this purpose. Dr. Noel Vest talks about his lived experience through substance use, prison, and his journey into the academy, which has resulted in two primary areas of passionate engagement. First, Noel pushes for policy-level change to ensure that those with lived experience have an opportunity for continued education and opportunity. Second, Noel engages in research to enhance recovery for those already in college in the form of collegiate recovery programs. Dr. Noel Vest is a postdoctoral fellow working with Dr. Keith Humphreys at Stanford University School of Medicine.
Drs. Seema Clifasefi & Susan Collins - Harm Reduction
Abstinence models have historically dominated definitions of recovery. However, research suggests that there is not necessarily a 1:1 ratio of substance use to problems, highlighting the importance of targeting harm rather than consumption. In recent decades, harm reduction models of recovery and policy have increasingly gained traction. Drs. Seema Clifasefi & Susan Collins talk about the history and definition of harm reduction, and about how a harm reduction approach informs their research and policy application. They also discuss diversity initiatives being implemented in Division 50. Dr. Seema Clifasefi is an Associate Professor in the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at the University of Washington, and the chair of the Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Committee of Division 50. Dr. Susan Collins is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Washington State University, and the Division 50 APA convention chair and chair of the membership committee for Division 50. Together, they are co-Directors of the Harm Reduction Research & Treatment Center.
NIAAA/NIDA Student/ECR Poster Session - APA convention 2020
Listen to the future voices of addiction research. Ten students/ECRs discuss their excellent work which will also be presented live, along with 23 others, on August 7, 2020 during the NIAAA/NIDA student/ECR poster session. Content ranges from psychometric analyses of new measures to policy-level decision making about harm reduction approaches, and everything in between. Primary presenters, poster titles, and timestamps for posters below.
- Silvi Goldstein (3:44-8:44) - Cross-cultural validity of the SIP-2R for Indigenous and Black adults experiencing homelessness with alcohol use disorders
- Rachelle Kromash (8:44-13:33) - Psychometric properties of the Illness Attitudes Scale among people with substance use disorders
- Katie Lindstrom (13:33-19:05) - Social network feedback and drinking outcomes in community-dwelling emerging adults recruited by peer referral
- Shelbi Fisher, Tyron Slack, and Alan Crutchfield (19:05-24:36) - Positive psychology in alcoholics anonymous literature
- Stephanie Coronado-Montoya (24:36-29:02) - SPICE: Intervention preference survey for people with early psychosis using cannabis
- Dr. Lourah Kelly (29:02-33:33) - Interactive effect of adverse child experiences and suicidality on adolescent alcohol and marijuana use frequency
- Dr. Alejandra Fernandez (33:33-37:21) - Screening for family functioning in primary care: Preliminary evidence
- Kate Bartley (37:21-42:44) - Health risk perceptions and secondhand exposure behaviors related to vaping among student veterans
- Kathleen Giarrantano (42:44-46:50) - Assessing support for safe injection sites among adult constituents in New York
- Jacob Daheim (46:50-52:37) - The Pain Medication Attitudes Questionnaire and conformity to masculine norms on men’s risk of abusing opioids in chronic pain
Dr. Tyler Wray - Just-in-time Interventions
Although in-person treatment is beneficial, many clients need to use skills in moments (e.g., under conditions of emotional distress or craving) that can make effective skill utilization difficult. Dr. Tyler Wray talks about harnessing technology for just-in-time interventions to help "nudge" clients people towards effective behavior change. Importantly during the COVID-19 era, Tyler discusses remote enrollment and data collection related to these studies, which helps his team gain access to vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations. Dr. Tyler Wray is the Edens Family Chair in Healthcare Communications & Technology at the Brown University School of Public Health and leads the School's academic programs in digital health and behavior. His research explores various ways technology can be used to help people make healthier decisions and lead healthier lifestyles.
Dr. Brandon Bergman, Part 2: Online Recovery-Support Services
Dr. Brandon Bergman continues his discussion about recovery support services and communities available through the Internet. Dr. Brandon Bergman is an Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School and the Associate Director of the Recovery Research Institute, which is housed in the Center for Addiction Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn more about their mission at recoveryanswers.org.
Dr. Brandon Bergman, Part 1 - Treatment versus Recovery-Support Services
Physical distancing recommendations from the COVID-19 pandemic has complicated addiction recovery, forcing many addiction recovery support services online for the foreseeable future. In the first half of our interview with Brandon Bergman, he discusses the difference between addiction treatment and recovery-support services, setting the stage for a discussion about online recovery support communities (Episode 1 Part 2). Dr. Brandon Bergman is an Assistant Professor at Harvard Medical School and the Associate Director of the Recovery Research Institute, which is housed in the Center for Addiction Medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital. Learn more about their mission at recoveryanswers.org.