By Discovery Matters
Discovery MattersMay 16, 2023
73. War! What is it good for?
War! What is it good for? Well in this episode of Discovery Matters, Dr Smith explains how military medicine first shaped state medicine and how wartime creates an opportunity to innovate. From advances in prosthetics, psychology, and cosmetic surgery to the mass production of penicillin during World War II, this episode dives deep into the life-saving innovations brought over the line due to conflicts.
Show notes:More is Better: English Language Statistics are Biased Toward Addition - Winter - 2023 - Cognitive Science - Wiley Online Library Protecting maternal health in Rwanda | MIT News | Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Keywords: medicine, war, military, wartime, innovation, doctors, civilian, patient, ai, medical, human, diseases, historian, psychiatry, navy, history.
72. Cryogenic cold chains and CAR T
On the latest episode of Discovery Matters, Dodi and Conor are joined by John Morris, a scientist at the forefront of cryopreservation technology. They discuss the impact of cryopreservation on the development of CAR T therapies, why freezing cells is essential to these treatments, how tracking the samples ensures quality, and the potential for frozen cells to treat solid tumors in the future. Tune in to find out how cryopreservation has transformed the life sciences and how it could revolutionize how we treat disease in the future.
Pioneers and Visionaries docu-series.
Keywords: patient, cells, freezing, therapies, gene therapy, car t, t cells, john Morris, cytiva, podcast, stabilizing, cryogenics, cold chain
71. Revived therapies (part 2) - Phage therapy
Conor and Dodi explore the new and exciting world of bacteriophage therapy. Join them as they speak to Anton Peleg, Professor of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology and the Director of the Department of Infectious Diseases at the Alfred Hospital and Monash University, about this new, emerging field. Together they discuss how phages, viruses that specifically target bacteria, are being used to fight against antibiotic-resistant superbugs, as well as the challenges of producing them at scale and getting them approved by regulatory bodies.
Tune in to Discovery Matters to learn all this and more, and join the conversation about these important advances in life sciences.
For more information on Professor Anton Peleg’s work with phages: Old cure revived in fight against antibiotic-resistant superbugs (smh.com.au)
RNA in space: Oba, Y., Koga, T., Takano, Y. et al. Uracil in the carbonaceous asteroid (162173) Ryugu. Nature Communications 14, 1292 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-36904-3 Keywords: phage, bacteria, infection, antibiotics, rna, therapies, bacterial infections, penicillin, patients, antibiotic resistant bacteria, cholera, phage therapy, superbugs.
70. Anti-cancer molecules
In the latest episode of Discovery Matters, Dodi and Conor are joined by Dr. Bradley Moore from the Scripps Institution of Oceanography to discuss his research into the medical and synthetic implications of using marine microbes to fight aggressive cancers such as glioblastoma. By leveraging salinosporamide A, Dr. Moore proposes that these deep-sea organisms could potentially be scaled up for human use and repurposed for medicinal and synthetic purposes. Dive into this episode to hear how the ocean has the power to bring forth new discoveries that could save lives!
For more information on this 'anti-cancer weapon': Scientists Discover How Molecule Becomes Anticancer Weapon | Scripps Institution of Oceanography (ucsd.edu)
Keywords: glioblastoma, salinosporamide A, Scripps, chemicals, organisms, coral, ocean, genomes, dna, molecules, medicine, bacterium, drug, oceanography, sequence, sea.
69. Never underestimate a cell
We should not underestimate cells. Conor and Dodi talk with Dr Brett Kagan who conducted research to understand the brain and test ‘sentient’ brain cells, using the 1970s game, known as ‘Pong’. In another conversation, Professor Petra Levin and Kunaal Joshi explain how they have demonstrated that there is no mythical ‘average’ cell which mimics the stochastic behaviors of any individual cell.
At the end of this episode, we hope to have proven that cells are not to be overlooked and still have so much to tell us about human health.
Show notesIn vitro neurons learn and exhibit sentience when embodied in a simulated game-world Beyond the average: An updated framework for understanding the relationship between cell growth, DNA replication, and division in a bacterial system
Keywords: cells, replication, pong, gamification, average, machine learning, brain cells, dna replication, intelligence, sleep, biology, biomass, bacteria, neurons.
68. CRISPR and molecular aging
What do CRISPR and longevity have in common? Not much, except it's all molecular.
We speak to two different CEOs focused on improving human health. We begin with Dr Benjamin Oakes, Co-Founder, President, and CEO of Scribe Therapeutics who takes us through the discovery, potential, and possible limitations of CRISPR.
Then we are joined by fellow visionary, Kristen Fortney, the CEO and co-founder of BioAge, which is a clinical stage biotechnology company developing therapies that treat disease by targeting the biology of ageing.
You cannot miss these fascinating conversations.
Keywords: ageing, crispr, molecules, age, technology, disease, muscle, engineering, treat, understand, genome editing, human, jennifer doudna.
67. Revived therapies (part 1): Psychedelics
Psychedelic treatment is a therapy which is on the rise according to the increasing number of studies on the use of psylocibin, ketamine and MDMA to treat mental health disorders such as PTSD. In this episode, Conor talks to Prof. Eric Vermetten, a psychiatrist who has been working with the military in the Netherlands for the last 25 years helping Dutch armed forces and the uniformed people in the face of PTSD and psychotraumatology.
For more info on Prof. Eric Vermetten’s work: Eric Vermetten - Leiden University (universiteitleiden.nl)
Keywords: MDMA, psilocybin, psychedelics, PTSD, compounds, therapy, drugs, psychotraumatology, trauma, ketamine, revived therapies
66. Getting ÄKTA ready in virtual reality
Conor and Dodi try their hand at learning to operate an ÄKTA ready in virtual reality. Their virtual journey takes them to Singapore and Miami, without leaving Sweden, Amersham, and Edinburgh. Join us on a journey into the metaverse.
For more info on using virtual reality for customers: cytiva.com/vr
You can view the video version of the episode here, where you can see virtual Dodi and Conor interact with virtual Arron Greig (our expert guide).
Keywords: virtual reality, meetings, vr, learning, training, virtual, instructions, ÄKTA
65. Best of 2022
Mushrooms on Mars, life-saving blood from worms, cell-cultured seafood. It's been a year filled with surprise, serendipity, and everything in between. Conor, Dodi and the podcast team look back on a fascinating year and highlight their favourite interviews and topics of the year.
See you in the new year!
More info on Conor’s favorite: What is Quorn mycoprotein? | Quorn
More info on Dodi’s favorite: How We Make Chocolate and Coffee From Plant Cell Culture Technology — The Future of Coffee and Chocolate | California Cultured (cacultured.com)
More info on Beth’s favorite: Discovery Makers: Mustapha Bittaye | Cytiva (cytivalifesciences.com)
More info on Tom’s favorite: Kevill JL, Pellett C, Farkas K, Brown MR, Bassano I, Denise H, McDonald JE, Malham SK, Porter J, Warren J, Evens NP, Paterson S, Singer AC, Jones DL. “A comparison of precipitation and filtration-based SARS-CoV-2 recovery methods and the influence of temperature, turbidity, and surfactant load in urban wastewater,” Sci Total Environ. 2022 Feb 20;808:151916. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.151916
Keywords: fungi, life, vaccines, middle income country, favorite discoveries, 2022 podcasts, future, listen, cell culture, wastewater
64. Pain in the body and brain
In this episode, we focus on the microbiome and how it is increasingly linked to disease and illness. It seems that this is true for understanding the illness of the body and the brain. Dr Amir Minerbi, the Deputy Director of the Institute for Pain Medicine at Rambam Medical Center in Haifa, Israel talks to us about how the microbiome may hold the secrets of fibromyalgia. This chronic disorder causes widespread pain, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, and potentially dozens of other symptoms.
We are also joined by Prof Illana Gozes, Director of Elton Laboratory for Molecular Neuroendocrinology in the Department of Human Molecular Genetics and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine in Tel Aviv University. She elaborates on her research surrounding the role of specific microbiota signatures as a biomarker for PTSD.
Minerbi, Amir, Gonzalez, Emmanuel, Brereton, Nicholas, Fitzcharles, Mary-Anna, Chevalier, Stéphanieh, Shir, Yorama. (2022) ‘Altered serum bile acid profile in fibromyalgia is associated with specific gut microbiome changes and symptom severity’, PAIN Vol.10 (1097). doi:10.1097/j.pain.0000000000002694.
Levert-Levitt E, Shapira G, Sragovich S, Shomron N, Lam JCK, Li VOK, Heimesaat MM, Bereswill S, Yehuda AB, Sagi-Schwartz A, Solomon Z, Gozes I. (2022) ‘Oral microbiota signatures in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) veterans,’ Mol Psychiatry. doi:10.1038/s41380-022-01704-6.
Keywords: microbiome, pain, ptsd, fibromyalgia, bacteria, gut microbiome, microbiota, bile acids, tel aviv university, veterans, symptoms, composition, biomarkers, patients
63. Organ on a chip: part 2
In this second episode in a two-part series on organ-on-a-chip technology, we sit down with Christos Michas, R&D scientist and engineer at Curi Bio, and Alice White, professor of mechanical engineering at Boston University. Christos and Alice are taking the organ on a chip to another level with the miniPUMP, a heart on a chip which is the first step in understanding the interaction of therapeutic drugs with the heart. As cardiac disease is one of the leading causes of death in the industrialized world, there is a lot of interest in understanding how this disease emerges, and how we can develop therapeutics.
Christos Michas and Alice White et al. (2022) ‘Engineering a living cardiac pump on a chip using high-precision fabrication’, Science Advances 8(16). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abm3791.
Keywords: organ on a chip, chip, cells, organ, heart, technology, tissue, structural elements, challenge, structure, model, drugs, photon, system, resin, material, function, miniPUMP.
62. Organ on a chip: Part 1
In this first in a two-part series on organ on a chip technology, we discuss with Jan Turner, formerly part of Safer Medicines Trust, how these organoids can help us move away from the inefficient animal model.
Emulate study on LiverTox - Liver-Chip Publication | Qualifying a human Liver-Chip for predictive toxicology (emulatebio.com)
Keywords: chips, drugs, organ, human, model, cells, technology, testing, animal models, animal testing, microbiome, preclinical testing, animal, organ on a chip, drug development.
61. Genetic and genomic databases
We have a lot of information at our fingertips, so how do we make sense of it all, especially in human health? Conor and Dodi speak to two experts who are making sense of this information overload by creating genetic and genomic databases.
Dr Artem Babaian, a computational biologist and now Assistant Professor leading The Laboratory for RNA-Based Lifeforms at the University of Toronto, explains how he and his team uncovered 100,000 novel viruses in old genetic data that could help us predict future pandemics.
Professor Jinchuan Xing, Associate Professor at Rutgers University in the Department of Genetics conducting research on genomic variation, walks us through his study on using genomic data to predict infertility from aneuploid egg production.
Let's dive into the data!
Edgar, R.C., Taylor, J., Lin, V. et al. Petabase-scale sequence alignment catalyses viral discovery. Nature 602, 142–147 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-04332-2
Sun, S., Miller, M., Wang, Y. et al. Predicting embryonic aneuploidy rate in IVF patients using whole-exome sequencing. Hum Genet 141, 1615–1627 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00439-022-02450-z
Keywords: viruses, genome, patients, prediction, mutations, data, RNA viruses, computational biology, families, human genome, whole exome sequencing, discovery, machine learning, infertility, chromosomes, scientists.
60. The talk on talent
Within the life sciences industry, there has been a longstanding conversation around one of the industry’s most difficult challenges. That challenge is talent. In more detail, it is that the access to a global talent pool remains difficult. In this longer than usual conversation, Conor and Dodi speak with Darrin Morrissey, CEO of NIBRT, Anne-Cecile Potmans, general manager of Fast Trak and CDMO services at Cytiva, and Nikki Soares, global talent acquisition leader at Cytiva.
We discuss how the industry is stepping up its resilience for customers and patients. To find, train, retrain, and retain talent is what matters in this episode of Discovery Matters.
Keywords: talent, organization, people, biopharma, industry, life sciences industry, training, global, retaining, companies, skills.
59. Microscopic eco-warriors
Plastic and pollution are two issues that impact our planet. It would be easy to despair but once again biology has come to save us. The Alper Lab at University of Texas at Austin has engineered a plastic-eating enzyme which can shorten plastic degradation from hundreds of years to 48 hours.
We speak to Dr Hal Alper, Professor in Chemical Engineering at UT at Austin, who engineered this heroic enzyme.
We also speak to Marco Poletto, director and co-founder of EcoLogic studio, which is a design innovation company specializing in biotechnology for the built environment. He explains his use of microalgae to create streetlights, playgrounds, and biofilms on the outside of buildings which can capture 20 large trees worth of CO2 every day.
Keywords: enzyme, plastic, protein, biology, ecologic, engineering, machine learning, organism, planet, algae, biomass, degrade, microorganisms, eco warrior, microscopic.
Timelapse of the plastic degradation, courtesy of University of Texas at Austin.
58. Wastewater epidemiology: Something in the wastewater
Wastewater-based epidemiology is a relatively new approach to determine the viral make up in any given area. Using chemical analysis of pollutants and biomarkers in raw wastewater, the level of exposure to certain pathogens can be assessed. This technique was used during the pandemic, which has helped realize its potential in public healthcare policy.
We speak to Prof. Dominic Frigon, a specialist of biological wastewater resource recovery at McGill University, who used this technique in Quebec through the pandemic to determine areas of vulnerability, including a homeless shelter. We also speak to Dr Kata Farkas, an environmental virologist at Bangor University, to understand the wider applications and importance of this analysis technique.
Urine for a treat with this conversation.
Keywords: wastewater, viruses, monitoring, pandemic, sewage, samples, population, infection, epidemiology, mutations, surveillance, norovirus.
57. Special blood and transplants
This episode is all about special blood and transplants. We speak to Jon Adkins, co-founder of XenoTherapeutics, who walks us through their use of xenotransplantation for skin grafts and organ transplantation. We are also joined by Dr. Franck Zal, a marine biologist, CSO and CEO of Hemarina, to discuss the lugworm. His discovery, that the lugworms’ blood is compatible with human blood, means it can be used in medical applications for transplants.
Join us for this eye-opening and insightful conversation.
56. Understanding and treating Alzheimer’s
In this episode, we contemplate the combatting the devastating disease that Alzheimer’s is. According to a recent report by the Alzheimer’s Disease International, an estimated 50 million people are living with dementia due to Alzheimer’s disease. We talk to two experts leading two respective early-stage studies into possible treatments for Alzhemier’s. One study looks at the tackling of tau proteins, another looks at treating aging rather than the disease itself.
Join us for this fascinating discussion!
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, dementia, ageing, disease, patients, tau, study, treatment, brain, discovery, protein, sodium selenate, neurodegenerative diseases, frailty, tauopathies, alzheimer's and brain awareness month.
55. The injustice of disease burden and access to vaccines
The pandemic has been a global issue, which has benefitted from the coming together of industry, pharma, academia, non-governmental and governmental support. What the pandemic has also brought into sharp focus is the global imbalance access to healthcare and health inequity between the Global North and Global South.
For this important conversation, we are joined by Professor Linda-Gail Bekker, Chief Operating Officer of the Desmond Tutu HIV Foundation about the current situation with HIV and TB in Africa, and the impact COVID-19 has had on patients already suffering from communicable diseases.
So, what can we do? Lenias Hwenda, founder and CEO of Medicines for Africa, explains the additional problems of access to medicines and potential solutions for global vaccine inequity, working to make medicines as inexpensive as possible, and improving the supply chain.
Related reading –
Dzau, V.J., Balatbat, C.A., Offodile II, A.C., Closing the global vaccine equity gap: equitably distributed manufacturing. The Lancet. 2022;399(10339): 1924-1926. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00793-0
The Global Biopharma Resilience Index
How localizing manufacturing is helping the Middle East take control of its vaccine supply?
Keywords: equitable access, HIV, human immunodeficiency viruses, Lentivirus, medicines, pandemic, countries, vaccine, TB, epidemic, Africa, supply chain, communicable diseases, middle-income countries, access, low-income countries, Global North, Global South, disease burden.
54. Mycoprotein v. cell-cultured seafood
We know meat is problematic for the environment, and seafood has its own issues with overfishing, so do we have to wave goodbye to the foods we love?
Well, what if we told you that there are substitutes which you can enjoy without sacrificing taste and texture?
We start with mycoprotein, in the form of the well-known meat substitute products of Quorn Foods. Tim Finnigan, Chief Scientific Advisor for Quorn Foods, explains why mycoprotein is such a suitable source of protein, how it is manufactured, the environmental benefits, and how fusarium venenatum, the microfungus, was discovered. And... it's tasty!
In the same episode, we ask Dr Lauran Madden, Chief Technology Officer at BlueNalu, to share with you the engineering process, the health and environmental benefits, and the positive impact on the environment of their cell-cultured seafood. This is hugely critical as the populations of marine species have halved since 1970, battling with overfishing, illegal fishing, and the effects of trawling. This cell-cultured seafood comes first...plaice... *sorry*.
By the end of this episode, we will hopefully have demonstrated the environmental and health benefits of switching meat out of our diets for better alternatives.
Keywords: cell-culture, microfungus, filamentous, mycoprotein, environment, meat substitute, protein, seafood, yeast, engineering, technologies, fish, fungi, Quorn, BlueNalu.
53. The future of GMOs
According to Jacob Moe-Lange from California Cultured, and Natasha Haveman from the UF Space Plant Lab, genetically modified food is the future. Both discuss the way that food is grown and how that is changing. Jacob takes us through cell-cultured chocolate and the environmental and humanitarian benefits. Natasha forces our gaze upwards to the plant experiments happening in spaceflight conditions, where scientists are learning how plants adapt to new environmental stresses.
In this episode, Dodi puts forward her argument that plants are better than Conor’s mycelium. Who will win out? Let’s see.
Keywords: cell-culture, chocolate, mycelium, plants in space, climate change, cell, bioprocessing, environment, space, gardeners, stem cells, food, genetic modification, GMOs.
52. The magical world of fungi (part 2)
Fungi are amazing in so many ways, and after learning that they could be used to build habitat on Mars, we have this bonus episode to go into home these mushrooms can be used on Earth. Chris Maurer, principal architect at redhouse studios, explains that he has been using mushrooms to make building materials in low-resource environments in Namibia. These materials prove even better than concrete.
Join Dodi and Conor for this episode on a truly amazing use of biology to solve our problems.
Keywords: mycelium, building materials, mushrooms, Namibia, carbon, oyster mushrooms, resources, encroach, bush, low-resource environment, Mars, redhouse studios.
51. Women in STEM
March is the month of the Woman, and to celebrate International Women’s Day we speak with two agents of change who are passionate about opportunity and diversity within the sciences. Ruchi Sharma, CEO and Founder of Stemnovate Limited, and Sabrina Fleurimé, drug product development scientist and Corporate Partnership Director at BBSTEM, talk to us about what we can all do to become agents of change.
Ruchi Sharma is recognized as one of the ones to watch entrepreneurs in the health industry, she is passionate about ensuring equality and equal opportunity. Alongside supporting women in science, she is also a veterinarian and supports inventions for better animal health while reducing animal testing.
Sabrina Fleurimé is a drug development scientist who has been working in the pharmaceutical industry for the past 6 years. During her time at AstraZeneca, she met Kayisha Payne, the founder of BBSTEM (Black British in STEM), and later decided to join the non-profit organisation. As BBSTEM’s corporate sponsorship director, she is actively interacting with actors in the STEM field, working towards bridging the gap between talents and opportunities.
Keywords: women, STEM, science, cells, equality, diversity, international women’s day, drug discovery, opportunities, scientists, Stemnovate, BBSTEM.
50. Biomimicry in space exploration
Sustained life and colonization in space are closer than ever, and biology holds the key. Biomimetic processes have applications for water filtration and for building homes on Mars. Jörg Vogel, VP of Open Innovation at Aquaporin, discusses how their Aquaporin Inside® Membrane Technology will help filter condensate and urine to make drinking water for astronauts.
We are also joined by Chris Maurer, an architect and founder of redhouse studios in Cleveland, Ohio. Chris is working on a project with NASA to build homes on Mars using mycelium.
Join Dodi and Conor for this truly ‘out-of-this-world’ episode.
Keywords: biomimicry, biomimetic, space, water, fungi, Mars, mycelium, NASA, oxygen, algae, biomass, radiation, condensate, building materials, Aquaporin, redhouse studios.
49. Discovery Makers: Mustapha Bittaye
Meet Discovery Maker Mustapha Bittaye, now a senior scientist working on diagnostic assay development at Medicines Discovery Catapult, who previously worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Jenner Institute helping create the Oxford/AstraZeneca vaccine. Born in The Gambia, a scholarship took Mustapha to the UK to study Microbial Proteomics, and from then onwards he has made truly amazing contributions to human health globally.
Conor and Dodi examine Mustapha’s story, truly brilliant mind, and how he is looking to the future.
Keywords: vaccine, pandemic, Oxford, Gambia, discovery, trial, AstraZeneca, scientists, COVID-19, scholarship, Jenner Institute, microbial proteomics.
48. Discovery Makers: Sebastian Falk
What better way to start off 2022 than with a return to our Discovery Makers series. We celebrate discovery by talking to the scientists changing the world one day at a time. This time we are joined by Sebastian Falk.
What drives a scientist? Well, according to Sebastian Falk, it is curiosity that drives him. Sebastian is a structural biologist who is leading a research group at the Max Perutz Labs investigating the structure and function of proteins, and how they work in RNA metabolism. In line with his curiosity-driven mindset, Sebastian also teaches at the University of Vienna where he is educating the next generation of up-and-coming scientists.
As part of our Discovery Makers series, Conor and Dodi discuss why Sebastian went into his research field, what motivates him, why he enjoys teaching, and what future research Sebastian is looking into.
Keywords: structural biology, proteins, science, discoveries, mentoring, serendipity, nucleic acid, discovery, experimenting, art, curiosity, hypothesis, research, RNAi, biogenesis.
47. Best of 2021
As 2022 rolls around the corner, we look back on the amazing topics we covered in 2021. Conor and Dodi were set an assignment to choose their favorite episode of the year, but as this was such a jam-packed year it made it very hard for them to complete their assignment. But as in all things, they delivered.
From fungi forays to an eye-opening conversation with Dr Joan Reede, President of the BSCP, Dodi and Conor discuss the best moments of the year, with a little input from the production team. Our podcast planner intern, Bethany shares her favorite episode, as does Thomas Henley our podcast editor and sound designer.
Stay to the end for a little surprise from us to you for the holiday season…
Keywords: insects, recombinant factor c, pupae, biotech, fats, discovery, favorite, industry, BSCP, fungi, horseshoe crab.
46. The pulse of the industry - BioPlan and the Biopharma Resilience Index
For this episode of Discovery Matters we are focusing on industry surveys and what they can tell us. This includes BioPlan and the Biopharma Resilience Index. Both huge reports providing insight into both the issues and opportunities facing the industry today.
Firman Ghouze, Cytiva’s Marketing Director in APAC, explains how the Biopharma Resilience Index came about, the industry issues it uncovers and potential solutions. We are also joined by Eric Langer, from BioPlan Associates, to discuss the BioPlan findings and how they echo many of the same themes. Finally, it was a delight to talk to Dr. Richard Wang, the founder and CEO of Neukio Biotherapeutics, who shares his insights as an industry leader.
This episode is an informative and accessible discussion on the state of the biopharma industry today. We discuss ways to tackle the most pressing challenges and how, if possible, we can best plan for the future.
Learn more about the Biopharma Resilience Index here.
Check out bioplanassociates.com.
Keywords: industry, manufacturing, index, talent, biopharma, resilience, capacity, supply chain, talent pool, capital flows, pandemic, biopharma resilience index.
45. Detecting sepsis: the role of single-cell
Single-cell sequencing is a technology that is giving us new genomic capabilities. Dr. Luciano Martelotto joins us to explain how single-cell sequencing allows scientists to understand cells as building blocks, much like LEGO™, which form part of a much bigger structure such as an organ, a tissue, a disease, and so forth. Dr. James McLaren utilizes this technology to look at septicemia; in his work he is using single-cell analysis to better understand sepsis and to develop a rapid diagnostic test. Single-cell sequencing could hold the key to understanding why the body reacts to infections, and overall to help us advance healthcare. Join Dodi, Conor and their guests, Dr. Luciano Martelotto, Scientific Director of Single Cell Lab at Harvard Medical School, and Dr. James McLaren, Systems Immunity lecturer at Cardiff University, in the latest episode of Discovery Matters.
Keywords: single-cell, sepsis, sequencing, diagnostic, infection, lab-on-a-chip, detection, technology, cellular.
44. Insects as biotech engines
We’ve talked about slime, seaweed, mushrooms, and now creepy crawlies. Insects are important biotech engines for medicines and meals. Algenex are using insect pupa to produce recombinant proteins that can be used for vaccines, which also has the potential to replace less sustainable raw materials. Insects are also excellent food sources, not just for bush tucker trials, but Dr. Daylan Tzompa-Sosa explains that insect lipids can make doughnuts, croissants, oils, and hummus!
Join Dodi, Conor and their guests Dr. José Escribano, founder and CSO of Algenex, and Dr. Daylan Tzompa-Sosa, a researcher at Ghent University specializing in milk fat, in the latest episode of Discovery Matters.
Keywords: insects, fats, protein, vaccines, cells, biomass, milk fat, recombinant protein, bioreactors, molecules, lipids, moth larvae, downstream.
43. Crossing the finishing line in biotech
We talk a lot about beginnings on Discovery Matters, but what about actually getting biologic drugs to people? Once the biologic is produced, aseptic filling and hybrid glass and plastic vials help to protect the biologic drug and the patient.
Join Dodi, Conor and their guests, Chris Weikart the Chief Scientist at SiO2 Material Science, and Ross Gold one of the founders of Cytiva's aseptic filling business, in the latest episode of Discovery Matters, talking about the end of the workflow.
Keywords: vials, packaging, biologic drugs, glass, injectable, aseptic filling, pandemic, plastic, innovation, dosage, patient, coating, molding.
42. mRNA - the talk of the town
Who (in the scientific community) would have guessed that mRNA would be such a popular word in everyone's vocabulary one day? Well, as Conor puts it, "all the research by the people on the edges of the scientific community for the past 20 years are really paying dividends."
Join Dodi, Conor, and their guests, Clive Glover the General Manager of Gene Therapy at Pall and James Taylor General Manager in Vancouver for Precision NanoSystems, in the latest episode of Discovery Matters, talking about mRNA revolutionizing the genomics field.
Keywords: mRNA, medicines, technology, disease, genetic, therapeutics, vaccines, RNA, innovation, viral vector, genomics.
41. Seaweed, Agar and Algae
In this episode of Discovery Matters, enter into the world of slime: seaweed, agar and algae. Algae gave us the atmosphere that we have today and is still coming to our aid against climate change. Executive Director of the Climate Change Cluster at the University of Technology in Sydney, Photobiologist Peter Ralph, who once called himself Dr. Death, explains how algae has given him newfound hope to fight climate change.
Join Conor and Dodi for this fascinating episode!
Keywords: algae, microalgae, seaweed, agar, sugars, protein, agarose, resins, cyanobacteria, climate change, photobiology, witchetty grub.
40. 'Joan's Ideal': One real story - and advice - on inclusion in the sciences
The BSCP is working towards greater diversity and opportunities for people of colour and disadvantaged individuals within the biomedical and life sciences.
Join Dodi and Conor and their guest, Dr Joan Reede, for this important episode where we learn what more can be done by ourselves and the industry as a whole to further diversity and inclusion.
Keywords: students, color, people, organisations, doctors, opportunities, privilege, pandemic, biomedical science, diversity, representation, life sciences, women, BSCP.
39. "You won't believe what happened next": a true crime special
How do you solve linked murders without witnesses? The answer, DNA.
In this episode of Discovery Matters, we have been inspired by the true crime genre. We discuss a 32-year-old cold case which was the first to be solved with DNA profiling, and a murder in Las Vegas that was solved with the smallest amount of DNA ever!
Join Dodi and Conor, and guest Kathryn Lamerton a former forensic scientist currently a Senior R&D Scientist at Cytiva, with a re-enactment helped by some of our colleagues at Cytiva for this exciting episode of Discovery Matters.
Keywords: DNA, crime, DNA profiling, crime scene, Colin Pitchfork, R&D.
38. Innovating with intent
We adore happy accidents. But is that the only way to innovate? We talk to an innovation guru who's all about structure. Then we meet a scientist whose goal with innovation is to scale up. Enter the Testa Center in Sweden. Hear how it all comes together in this episode with Dodi and Conor.
Keywords: innovation, discoveries, Testa Center, Innovation hub, scale up.
37. The old biotech and the sea
Short and sweet. Conor brings an interesting story about the role of horseshoe crabs in the pharmaceutical industry. Our guest and subject matter expert is Ding Jeak Ling - or Lynne, as she prefers to be called. She is a professor at the Department of Biological Sciences National University of Singapore, and her main research interest is in innate immunity and cancer immunomodulation.
Enjoy - and rate us!
Keyword: cancer immunomodulation, immunity, crabs, endotoxin, horseshoe crab, RFC, blood, LAL, bacteria, medicines, rabbits.
36. The 5 R's in the life sciences industry
Sure, healthcare and pharma does a whole lot of good in the world - but this doesn't make us exempt from taking our plastic waste seriously.
So join Conor and Dodi as they talk about the 5 R's with their guests:Tom Szaky, Founder and CEO at TerraCycle; Cristina Peixoto, Head of Lab at iBET (Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica, Portugal) and Joëlle Cristofani from Cytiva.
Keywords: instruments, recycle, refurbished, garbage, sustainability, recycling, filters, syringe, waste, chromatography, refuse, reuse, repurpose.
35. One hundred years of insulin and the future diabetes vaccine
What better way to celebrate 100 years of insulin than with the CEO of the company who is on the verge of giving us a vaccine for type 1 diabetes?
We spoke to Ulf Hannelius in April and 3 days ago we saw the published results of DIAGNODE-2, a Phase IIb trial that evaluated intralymphatic administration of Diamyd Medical’s lead drug candidate Diamyd® (GAD-alum) in individuals recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Congratulations!
Guests who also joined us in this episode are Mark A. Atkinson, American Diabetes Association Eminent Scholar and Anders Ekholm, diabetes patient and parent, and Chairman of the Diabetes Association for Greater Stockholm.
Keyword: insulin, diabetes, manufacturing, blood glucose level, pandemic, diabetic, recombinant insulin, biosynthetic insulin, type 1 diabetes.
34. Citizen Science and the science of gamification
What's the science behind apps like Duolingo and Yousician? Gamification! And what happens when you apply this science to ... scientific discoveries?
Join Dodi and Conor and their guests, Zoran Popovic, University of Washington and Helen Spiers, Zooniverse.
Reading material:https://www.geekwire.com/2020/protein-puzzle-game-called-foldit-turns-99-promising-ways-confound-coronavirus/ https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/1412171/1/p79-eveleigh.pdf https://dragonbox.com/about/algebra-challenge https://stemforall2020.videohall.com/presentations/1810
Keywords: game, gamification, protein, puzzles, Foldit, Zooniverse, COVID, MOSAK, dopamine, Endoplasmic Reticulum.
33. Discovery Makers: Dorraya El-Ashry
Scientists love asking “why?” But they often have intensely personal reasons for solving challenges too. Meet Dorraya El-Ashry, scientist and trailblazer whose work on breast cancer is making the world a better, healthier place. Dorraya is using her three decades of research experience to direct the fight against this deadly disease.
Look out, breast cancer.
Keywords: breast cancer, discovery maker, triple negative, breast cancer research, immunotherapy, breast cancer research foundation, metastatic cancer, research funding, estrogen receptor, tumor microenvironment.
32. Discovery Makers: Robert "Bob" Lefkowitz
This episode almost became a 3 hour long one - Robert "Bob" Lefkowitz, PhD., is a phenomenal, infinite source of knowledge. Dodi and Conor are still an awe and deep appreciation for the time spent with the 2012 Nobel Prize laureate for Chemistry (shared with Brian Kobilka).
Dive in and listen to the #discoverymakers story of Bob Lefkowitz talking about humor, creativity and resilience in science discoveries.
Keywords: Robert Lefkowitz, Brian Kobilka, Nobel prize, chemistry podcast, science podcast, discovery podcast, science discoveries, curiosity.
30. Oligos part 2
Remember our first episode on oligonucleotides, telling the story of Roy living with spinal muscular atrophy? We were so amazed by this technology, we promised to follow up at a later date - and today is the day! Listen to find out how Roy is doing today, and hear from Harvard medical doctor and researcher, Tim Yu and Nikki Reyes-McIntosh, mother of Miles who also lives with SMA and is treated by oligos.
Keywords: oligo, oligonucleotide, spinal muscular atrophy, science podcast, oligo podcast, SMA, rare diseases.
29. The science of science denial
Longer episode than we're usually used to, but we think it's worth it. Why does science denial exist, how does it work and what's the antidote?
Join Conor, Dodi and their guests: Haafizah Hoosen, Ask for Evidence Ambassador at Sense about Science + Dr. Danna Young, Associate Prof Communication & Political Science at University of Delaware.
Looking for further reading? Conor recommends this article from VOX. This is a first-person essay with a unique perspective on a complicated issue.
Enjoy, share and remember to rate us on your favorite podcast player!
Keywords: covid vaccine, science denial, anti-vaxxer, covid, covid-19, coronavirus, pandemic, conspiracy theories, science podcast
28. The magical world of fungi (part 1)
Conor finally brings the 15 minutes of fame to fungi - mushrooms being second only to his "microbiomania". We invite you to the beginning of the journey to understand the importance of fungi and mushrooms.
Guests are Clare Blencowe, an amateur mycologist and manager at Sussex Biodiversity Record Centre, and Merlin Sheldrake, a biologist and a writer with a background in plant sciences, microbiology, ecology, and the history and philosophy of science.
If you want to go down the rabbit whole yourself, follow the #MycoBookClub on Twitter.
Keywords: fungi, fungus, mushroom, life science, microbiome, ecology.
27. Best of 2020
2020 wasn't all bad! We met some fascinating scientists during the year who helped us understand topics like quantum biology, how baking bread helps us make medicines, and why we embrace the very, very cold. We hope you have enjoyed Discovery Matters in 2020 and that you'll let us know what you want to hear in 2021! As Conor says, "every day is a school day."
Keywords: Discovery Matters, science, quantum biology, podcast, immune system, biology.
26. Mapping tissues and tumors
How do we find our way? Consulting a map is the age-old answer, at least geographically. But the art of mapping - considered a superpower by one of this episode's guests - extends to anything we want to understand better. Join Conor and Dodi on this exploration of data visualization. Your challenge at the end of the episode - spend time on these sites:http://scimaps.org https://www.pnas.org/modeling https://visanalytics.cns.iu.edu
Thanks to our guests Paul Goodwin from Cytiva and Katy Borner at the Indiana University.
Keywords: tumor, tumor microenvironment, immunotherapy, cancer treatment, anatomy.
25. It all adds up: mathematical simulations in biopharma research
This episode is easily one of our favorites: everything from design of experiments, to AI-powered math simulations, to existential questions. Conor and Dodi welcomed Tobias Hahn from GoSilico, alongside two of their colleagues from Cytiva - principal scientist Gunnar Malmquist and advanced chromatography specialist, John Scibetta.
Have a listen, share this gem and rate us on your favorite podcast.
Keywords: computer simulation, biopharma, math, biochemistry, biotherapeutic, chromatography, process development.
24. Breast cancer research during COVID19
With the arrival of October we notice the (re)arrival of pink ribbons - it is Breast Cancer Awareness month.
In this episode of Discovery Matters, Dodi and Conor talk to Dr. Margaret Flowers who is the director of research at The Breast Cancer Research Foundation, BCRF. They discuss cellular nutrition, hormone-positive breast cancer, chemoprevention, and the state of breast cancer research during COVID times.
Enjoy the episode, and if you want to find out more about the amazing work that BCRF is doing, simply go to www.bcrf.org.
Keywords: breast cancer, nutrition, breast cancer research, immunotherapy, treatment, breast cancer research foundation, COVID, pandemic, awareness, screening, cellular nutrition, hormone-positive breast cancer, chemoprevention.
23. Chill out: from cryotherapy to cryopreservation
Popular science and cell biology collide in this episode as Dodi and Conor discuss the science of cryogenics and its diverse applications. They are joined by Cytiva Senior Scientists and cryobiologists, Peter Kilbride and Julie Meneghel, as well as Fernanda Fonseca, Research Director at the French National Institute for Agriculture, Food, and Environment (INRAE). Executive Producer and PopSci enthusiast, Andrea Kilin, kicks off the discussion by sharing her experience with cryotherapy!
Keywords: Cryotherapy, cryogenics, endangered species, cryopreservation, cryobiology, cell therapies, CAR T cell, cancer patient.
Discovery Matters ... because it does!
Life sciences has a new podcast! A collection of stories and insights on matters of discovery that advance life sciences. Hosts are Dodi Axelson and Conor McKechnie, friends for gloriously long years and colleagues at Cytiva. Enjoy!
22. The Molecular Clamp - Perspectives from one team's search for a COVID-19 vaccine
While it may not be here tomorrow, scientists around the world are racing to develop viable COVID-19 vaccine candidates. In this episode, Dodi and Conor share the perspectives of two researchers on the vaccine development team for the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology - Professors Trent Munro and Keith Chappell. Learn how Trent and Keith's team identified their lead vaccine candidate from an initial field of 200 in just over 5 weeks!
Keywords: vaccine, pandemic, virus, protein, scientists, molecular, immune response, antigen, problem, development, molecular clamp, clamp.
July bonus - Fun scientific facts
Dodi and Conor welcome colleague Kaycee Palumbo for the Discovery Matters special of "Did you know?"
Sources:Drugged-out hallucinating zombie cicadas Zombie ants 30 000-year-old fruit in Siberian permafrost 50 interesting facts about Biotechnology The human genome - about 99.9% of human DNA is the same. It is the other 0.1% that codes for all of the differences that make each person unique. The length of the human DNA compared to the world - each cell contains about 2m worth of DNA, if you stretch it end to end, It would measure up to be twice the diameter of the solar system Small water pools in Mexico can show us the early seas/life on earth How gut bacteria influence us.
21. The brewer, the baker and the biotech maker
Without baking and brewing, there'd be no biotech.
Join Dodi and Conor through the discovery of fermentation, bags of wheat at the Stockholm Brewing company, and too much pizza dough on Sundays at The Bakery.
Guest on this episode are: Anna Roswall, Head Baker at The Bakery; Michel Ahlin-Wigardt, Head Brewer at The Stockholm Brewery; Nigel Darby, Senior Advisor at Cytiva and Paul Goodwin, Science Director at Cytiva.
Keywords: biotech, fermentation, gene editing, gut microbiome, 3D printing, biochemistry, microorganism, CRISPR, food industry.
20. Seeing things small: what does biology and telecom have in common?
Excited about the combination of biology, engineering and computing being the 21st century's big leap forward? Do you see biological computing actually becoming a thing?
Join Dodi and Conor to discuss how all the lines are blurring: where there used to be separate industries we can all learn from each other.
Guests on this episode are Prachi Bogetto of Cytiva, and Cristian Norlin from Ericsson.
Keywords: biology, computation, telecom, computational biology, future, engineering.
19. The discovery of Protein A
The Scandinavians have done it again. In this episode Conor and Dodi are (not really) surprised to find out that, just like chromatography, protein A has also been discovered in the North of Europe. What makes protein A special, though? What about protein G or protein L? Surely protein A is not the most popular because of alphabetical order? This episode's hosts are joined by Josefin Bolik, protein A subject matter expert at Cytiva, Glen Bolton, Director of Bioprocess Development at Amgen, and Jonathan Royce, former colleague of Conor's and Josefin's.
Keywords: protein, protein A, antibodies, monoclonal antibodies, biologic, drug, purification, resin, industrial scale, cancer, chromatography.
18. Quantum biology: going subatomic
How do birds know where to go in the winter? And why are plants so efficient at making food? Conor and Dodi chat with researchers studying whether quantum biology might offer answers.
Keywords: quantum mechanics, quantum biology, photosynthesis, magnetoreception.
17. How does your brain discover what it wants?
In this episode, Dodi and Conor take 2 minutes to celebrate the birth of Cytiva, company formerly part of GE Healthcare Life Sciences. Yes, only 2 minutes because they're immediately more interested in the science behind choices our brains make. They are joined by Uma Karmarkar, Assistant Professor in Marketing at UCSD focusing on Decision Neuroscience, and Tim Arthur, currently a radio presenter for the BBC and an expert in helping organisations through change.
Keywords: brain, brand, neuroscience, science.
16. The artistry of vaccine development
"Vaccines are a way to educate our immune system to recognize foreign and dangerous stuff," says Daria Donati, Director of Business Development and Innovation at Cytiva.
Dodi and Conor embark on a journey in this episode of Discovery Matters: the journey of a vaccine. They are joined by Adrian Hill, Professor of Human Genetics at the University of Oxford and Consultant Physician, and Rebecca Chandler, Senior Contributor at WHO's Uppsala Monitoring Center.
Keywords: vaccine, immunization, vaccine development, immune system.
15. How to: Small biotechs into big companies
How do big companies stay at the forefront of the industry? How do small companies "make it big"? In this episode of Discovery Matters, Conor and Dodi chat with 3 guests to find some answers. Please welcome Kath Mackay, managing director at Alderley Park, Steve Bates, CEO of the BioIndustry Asociation (BIA) and Oliver Hardick, board member of the BIA and business leader at Cytiva.
Keywords: bioscience, biotech, biomanufacturing, accelerator, innovation.
14. The story of oligonucleotides and spinal muscular atrophy
In this episode, Conor tells Dodi the story of Roy Muhrbeck. It all started 4 years ago when new parents, Hugo Muhrbeck and Maja Ödmann brought home their first child. They were excited and nervous as so many first time parents are. But after a short while, they started to think that maybe everything wasn’t exactly how it should be. Soon after, their son Roy was diagnosed with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).
Stay tuned to find out how oligonucleotides (oligos) help Roy and where he is today.
Keywords: spinal muscular atrophy, SMA, antisense oligo therapy, genetic disease, Ionis Pharmaceuticals, genomics, clinical trial, oligonucleotides.
13. Scratched knees, smelly yogurt, and speedy wound healing
So, what does yogurt have to do with wound healing? In this episode, Evelina Vågesjö from Ilya Pharma helps Conor and Dodi see the connection. It’s all about getting help from our small bacterial friends, lactic acid, and chemokines. Tune in to learn how it all connects.
Keywords: wound healing, how to heal wounds faster, heal wounds fast, Ilya pharma, yoghurt.
12. School’s never out: Educating the next gen biopharma talents
Education matters for sure. But what is special about biopharmaceutical education? And what does the future hold? Dodi and Conor are about to find out. Their guides in this episode are Killian O’Driscoll at NIBRT, Ireland, and Ron Kander at Thomas Jefferson University, US.
Keywords: education, Thomas Jefferson University, NIBRT, biopharmaceutical education.
11. Fighting fake news in biotechnology: Sense about Science
Can you trust the scientific claims on products you buy? Conor's curiosity led him down a three-pronged investigation about what you can and should believe, when it comes to statistics and statements about science.
Keywords: sense about science ask for evidence, sense about science.
10. Perspectives for health - learning about blockchain
Blockchain is everywhere. Is it the technology we've all been waiting for? Sometimes, and sometimes not. Dodi and Conor talk with Dr. Catherine Mulligan about what blockchain is, and how it's most useful for us.
Keywords: blockchain in healthcare, blockchain, blockchain technology, Imperial College London, Dr Cathy Mulligan.
9. Innovation inside-the-box, cyborgs and jugaad (जुगाड)
Follow Dodi as she dives into the world of innovation. More specifically, the difference between talking innovation and being innovative. Meet Tobias the cyborg that likes thinking inside the box and learn what Gaud has to say about the concept of jugaad in India.
Keywords: innovation, cyborg, jugaad, jugaad innovation.
8. Microbiome transplant: cooties can cure you
Conor has, what he calls "microbiomania". Whatever the topic, he is able to bring it back to microbiomes in about 3 sentences. So imagine how excited he was to interview Colleen Cutcliffe, CEO of Pendulum whose mission is to make millions healthier through microbiome-targeted medical solutions. Another guest on this episode is Jacques Ravel, professor extraordinaire of The Human Microbiome and Women's Health at the Institute for Genome Sciences, University of Maryland.
Enjoy! (We sure did!)
Interested in Conor's microbiomania? He writes regularly on his LinkedIn account.
You can also read more Discovery Matters on our Medium publication. (with the same name).
Keywords: microbiome, vagina, microbiota, microbes, bacteria, therapeutics, human microbiome, health, protect, develop.
7. Fitness trackers in the 1940s: The Framingham Heart Study
During a lively lunch chat about the popularity of wearable fitness trackers, the curious question came up: with all this data we are generating, what if we were able to do it 50-70 years ago - where would medicine and healthcare be now?
Hearing the question Dodi immediately remembered The Framingham Heart Study. Its objective was to identify the common factors or characteristics that contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) by following its development over a long period of time in a large group of participants who had not yet developed overt symptoms of CVD or suffered a heart attack or stroke. The research is still ongoing after 70 years and has now added Alzheimer's and diabetes to their list.
Tune in to listen to Dr. Vasan Ramachandran, Principal Investigator and Director Framingham Heart Study; Professor, Boston University School of Medicine and Tom Gracia, a participant in the study for more than 40 years.
Keywords: Framingham heart study, Framingham, Ramachandran, participant, heart attacks, human genome project, healthier, heart, dying, behaviour, heart disease, smoking.
6. CAR-T cell therapy: the story of 2 brave young women fighting cancer
This episode is a more immediately serious story than previous topics we've covered. This story is about a discovery where a number of people had to go through unimaginable pain so that it can become useful for others.
This is the story of Emily Whitehead, the first pediatric patient enrolled in a clinical trial investigating CAR T-cell therapy CTL019, now known as tisagenlecleucel, at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP). Emily is now a happy, healthy 14-year-old in remission for the past 7 years.
This is also the story of Nicole Gularte, the leukemia patient who beat cancer 8 times (!!!) and is the recipient of no less than 3 rounds of CAR-T cell therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). On Nov 23rd she will walk 8 km ahead of Philadelphia Marathon to raise money and awareness for the Emily Whitehead Foundation. You can help by donating here: www.bit.ly/nicolecart
Keywords: cell, patient, therapy, doctor, story, discovery, gene therapy, cancer, treatment, manufacturing, industry, trial, therapeutic index, clinical trial
5. A map of humankind from the inside out
We humans have been mapping things since the beginning of time. In our endless quest to figure ourselves and our world out, there are projects galore. Does the 150-year-old periodic table ring any bells?
In this episode, Dodi takes Conor on an explorer’s journey, destination: Human Protein Atlas project.
Strap on your seatbelt, it’s a bumpy ride connecting the dots between explorers, chemists, geneticists…and even sociologists!
Keyword: atlas, periodic table, proteins, maps, protein, elements, project, mapping, discovery, classify, human protein atlas.
4. The role of AI in pandemics
A pandemic starts with a picnic. But can pandemics be prevented without cancelling feel-good gatherings?
Enter Artificial Intelligence into the world of healthcare and life sciences. Dodi meets up with an expert panel on the topic and gets examples of the real potential of this very trendy topic.
Keywords: pandemics, ai, data, infectious diseases, healthcare, outbreak, ebola outbreak, ebola crisis, predict, data sources, spread, humanitarian, infections.
1. Tea and jam and protein separation
Dodi and Conor discover how jam played a part in paving the way for biopharmaceutical drugs. 60 years ago, Swedish scientists happened upon a new method of protein separation through chromatography. The very same technique continues to be the foundation for modern biomedical manufacturing.
Keywords: protein separation, chromatography, dextran, jam, protein, gel, Swedish, pectin, affinity chromatography, develop, column, antibodies, separate, pharmacy, sugar, biomedical manufacturing, sephadex.
2. When a hamster rules the biopharma world
Little did you know, but a single hamster has been a force of innovation and massive biomedical production. Scientists devote entire careers to so-called CHO cells from this Chinese hamster’s ovary. Dodi and Conor meet a couple of them to figure out why this hamster rules the biopharma world.
Keywords: cells, protein, hamster, CHO, patient, dna molecules.
3. Kidney surgeon who fixes the plumbing
The list of people needing kidney transplants is tragically long, and donor lists are desperately short. Conor and Dodi find scientists who are coming up with alternative solutions to this problem. Some enable transplantation of less-than-perfect organs, and others dream of 3D printing important organs.
Keywords: organ, transplant, dialysis, kidney, transplantation, donors, patient, organ donation, surgeon, repairing, biomedical.