Nutrition Reviews: Conversations with the Authors
By James Cameron
Nutrition Reviews: Conversations with the AuthorsJun 05, 2023
Nutritional and exercise interventions in individuals with sarcopenic obesity around retirement age: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Retirement is an opportune time for people to establish new healthy routines. Exercise and nutritional interventions are promising in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenic obesity. The authors of this featured article conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effectiveness of nutritional and exercise interventions for the treatment of sarcopenic obesity in persons of retirement age. Join us this episode as editor-in-chief Dr. Douglas Taren speaks with Doris Eglseer and Lea Reiter from Institute of Nursing Science, Medical University of Graz, about their thoughts on their findings.
Nutrition in school-age children: a rationale for revisiting priorities
Middle childhood and early adolescence have received disproportionately low levels of scientific attention relative to other life stages, especially as related to nutrition and health. Nevertheless, this age bracket, which encompasses most of the primary education and basic schooling years for most individuals, is marked by significant changes, inflection points, and sexually driven divergence in somatic and brain growth and development trajectories. Join us for this episode where Douglas Taren speaks with Jose Saavedra, co-author of this featured article, on their review highlighting the specificities of growth and development in middle childhood and early adolescence, the role of nutrition, the short- and long-term consequences of inadequate nutrition, and the current global status of nutrition in this age group.
Systematic review of the portion size norm of discretionary foods
Portion size norm is described as the perception of how much of a given food people choose to eat. The authors of this featured article conducted a systematic review to examine the portion size norm of discretionary foods and assess the methodologies used to investigate the norm. Join us this episode as editor-in-chief Dr. Douglas Taren speaks with Qingzhou (Monica) Liu and Anna Rangan from The University of Sydney about their thoughts on their findings.
Effectiveness of diet quality indices in measuring a change in diet quality over time: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Diet quality is a multidimensional concept that incorporates healthy food choices, nutrient adequacy, food variety, moderation/excess, and overall balance. The authors of this episode's featured article conducted a review to examine the consumption of both nutrients and foods or food groups in recognition of the importance of the relationships between nutrients, foods, and dietary patterns that underpin diet quality. Join us for a conversation with article co-author Erynn McAuley from the School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, Queensland, Australia.
Protein intake and its effect on sleep outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Poor sleep is increasingly seen as an issue of public health concern. In recent years, there has been growing interest in protein as a route to improve sleep outcomes; however, the evidence is limited and inconclusive. Join us this episode as Dr. Douglas Taren speaks with authors Janine Wirth and Lorraine Brennan from the UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, for this episode's featured article.
The relationship between individual and environmental factors related to health, nutritional status, and diet in elderly people living alone in Japan
Aging is an essential milestone that governments worldwide must plan for. At a global level, Japan currently has the highest share of population older than 65 years. Elderly individuals living alone encounter many challenges typically not faced by those living in a multiperson household. Nutrition status and diet are 2 such challenges, both of which are crucial determinants of health and well-being. Join us this episode as Dr. Douglas Taren speaks with the authors from this episode's featured article, Midori Ishikawa and Tetsuji Yokoyama from the National Institute of Public Health, Wako, Saitama, Japan.
Alternative dietary protein sources to support healthy and active skeletal muscle aging
To mitigate the age-related decline in skeletal muscle quantity and quality, and the associated negative health outcomes, it has been proposed that dietary protein recommendations for older adults should be increased alongside an active lifestyle and/or structured exercise training. The question therefore arises as to where this dietary protein required for meeting the protein demands of the rapidly aging global population should (or could) be obtained. Join us this episode as Douglas Taren speaks with co-authors Ino van der Heijden and Benjamin Wall from the Department of Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom, to hear more from them on their research and findings.
Effects of dietary polyphenols in the glycemic, renal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic nephropathy: a systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
This episode, Dr. Douglas Taren speaks with Mateus de Lima Macena and Dr. Nassib Bezerra Bueno from Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil. Their article assesses effects of dietary polyphenols, from food sources or supplements, on the anthropometric, glycemic, renal, inflammatory, and oxidative stress markers in adults with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Join us for this conversation with this month's featured authors.
Folate dose and form during pregnancy may program maternal and fetal health and disease risk
In North American countries, synthetic folic acid (FA) is overconsumed by pregnant women, and uncertainty exists about its potential unintended health effects. Because the metabolism of FA is different than that of other folate forms, it may modulate disease risk differently. In this episode, Dr. Taren speaks with Dr. Emanuela Pannia and Dr. Rola Hammoud, authors from this month's featured article on their examination of role folate, in its synthetic and bioactive form, as an in utero modifier of metabolic outcomes in mothers and offspring.
Ketogenic diet, epilepsy and cognition: what do we know so far? A systematic review
This episode, Dr. Taren speaks with Dr. Maiara Cristina Lima and Dr. Débora Kurrle Venske from University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Their article is a systematic review on the effects of the ketogenic diet (KD) in children and adults with pharmacoresistant epilepsy on cognitive function. Join us for this conversation.
Systematic review of carotenoid concentrations in human milk and infant blood
Dietary carotenoid intake is associated with vitamin A status and healthy visual and cognitive function in early life. To date, however, only limited population-level data on the concentrations of carotenoids in human milk or infant blood have been available to assess the dietary exposure of infants to carotenoids. This episode, Nutrition Reviews Editor in Chief, Dr. Douglas Taren, speaks with Dr. Nancy Moran who with her co-authors conducted a systematic review that seeks to define worldwide carotenoid concentrations in human milk and infant blood. Join us for this conversation.
Enablers and barriers of harnessing food waste to address food insecurity: a scoping review
Despite producing sufficient food for the global population, the growing prevalence of food insecurity in developed countries is cause for concern. The millions of metric tons of food wasted each year could be used instead to drastically lower rates of food insecurity and address food sustainability. This episode, we speak with Amanda Grech from the School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Sydney. She, and her co-authors, conducted a scoping review, aimed to identify barriers to and enablers of harnessing food waste across food sectors, including food retail, households, and food rescue organizations, to address food insecurity in a developed country, Australia.
Perceived racial discrimination and eating habits: a systematic review and conceptual models
Previous epidemiological studies have shown an association between racial discrimination and health outcomes in specific populations, such as Black, Asian, and Indigenous individuals living in the United States, Australia, and Canada as well as in Latin American and European countries. Most of these studies have a focus on interpersonal racial discrimination, which is mainly investigated by measuring perceived racial discrimination and evaluating chronic stress caused by unfair treatment experiences over an individual’s lifetime. Several studies have demonstrated an association between lifelong racial discrimination experiences and poor eating habits in the last decade of life. Our guest, Raquel Canuto, along with her co-authors, conducted a systematic review to examine the association between PRD and eating habits and to analyze the pathways of this association presented in the primary studies. Join us this episode as we speak with Dr. Canuto about the groups findings.
How cost-effective is nutrition care delivered in primary healthcare settings? A systematic review of trial-based economic evaluations
Diet influences the aetiology of 7 of the 10 most globally prevalent Non-Communicable Diseases. Most individuals do not have a diet that adheres to guidelines for the prevention of disease. Nutrition care has been shown to be an effective way of reducing biomarkers of diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and excess body weight. However, the cost-effectiveness of nutrition care within primary care settings remains unknown. As such, this review aims to synthesize and evaluate the findings of CEAs of nutrition care interventions provided in primary care settings. Join us this episode as we speak to Dr. Katelyn Barnes and Dr. Lauren Ball from Griffith University, Nathan, QLD, Australia.
Pink pressure: beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra) as a possible novel medical therapy for chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) manifests with systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, and gut dysbiosis, resulting in metabolic disorders and elevated rates of cardiovascular disease–associated death. The root vegetable beetroot (Beta vulgaris rubra) deserves special attention because it is a source of several bioactive compounds, such as nitrate, betaine, and betalain, and has shown beneficial effects in CKD, including reduction of blood pressure, anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant actions by scavenging radical oxidative species, as observed in preclinical studies. In this episode, we speak with Laís de Souza Gouveia Moreira and Denise Mafra from Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Rio de Janiero, Brazil, co-authors of this month's featured paper.
How are health, nutrition, and physical activity discussed in international guidelines and standards for children in care? A narrative review
Children in care (CiC) have often experienced trauma and, as a result, are at high risk for poor health outcomes. It is imperative that human-service stakeholders provide trauma-informed health services and interventions. However, little is known about how health promotion is addressed in the standards and guidelines for CiC. Join us this episode where we speak with Rachael Green, co-author of this month's featured paper.
The effect of herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases: a review of human clinical trials
Herbs and spices are recommended to increase flavor and displace salt in the diet. Accumulating evidence suggests herbs and spices may improve risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases. In this episode we speak with Kristina Petersen, who co-authored this paper on a review of human clinical trials and studies on the effect of herbs and spices on risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases.
Eggs as an affordable source of nutrients for adults and children living in food-insecure environments
This episode we speak with Jamie Baum, PhD the Director for the Center for Human Nutrition within University System Division of Agriculture and is an Associate Professor in the Department of Food Science. She, with co-author Sam Walker, wrote a narrative review on eggs as an affordable source of nutrients for adults and children living in food-insecure environment. Food insecurity affects an estimated 12% of households in the United States. Dietary intake of eggs may be an applicable solution for food-insecure families who are challenged by limited nutritional intake. However, dietary intake of eggs is controversial in regard to cardiovascular health. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the role of eggs in the diet and the impact eggs have on health for adults and children living in a food-insecure environment.
Nutrients for executive function development and related brain connectivity in school-aged children
This episode we speak with Sarah Costello at Société des Produits Nestlé S.A, Nestlé Research, Lausanne, Switzerland. She, with co-authors, Eveline Geiser, and Nora Schneider published a review on nutrients for executive function development and related brain connectivity in school-aged children. Among other factors, their research highlights the influential effect of nutrition and diet on these neurodevelopmental processes, which may impact executive function performance in healthy and deficient populations. Join us for this conversation.
Extra-virgin olive oil and the gut-brain axis: influence on gut microbiota, mucosal immunity, and cardiometabolic and cognitive health
This episode we speak with Dr. Jasmine F. Millman at Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Hematology, Rheumatology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa. She, with co-authors, Shiki Okamoto, Taiki Teruya, Tsugumi Uema, Shinya Ikematsu, Michio Shimabukuro, and Hiroaki Masuzaki published a review examining findings from recent studies regarding the impact of EVOO on gut microbiota and intestinal health and explore how modulations in composition of gut microbiota, production of microbially produced products, and activity and functioning of the mucosal immune system may lead to favorable outcomes in cardiovascular, metabolic, and cognitive health. I look forward to having you listen in to our discussion.
Genotype-guided dietary supplementation in precision nutrition
This episode we speak with Kalliopi Gkouskou and Aristides Eliopoulos from the Department of Biology, School of Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece. They published, with co-authors, Maria Grammatikopoulou, Ioannis Vlastos, and Despina Sanoudou, a review focused on published evidence linking genetic variants to the responses associated with some of the most popular dietary supplements. I look forward to having you listen in to our discussion.
A Rapid Review on Low-calorie Sweeteners and Human Health
This episode we speak with Lesley Andrade from the School of Public Health and Health Systems at the University of Waterloo in Canada. She published along with her co-authors, Kirsten Lee, Allison Sylvetsky, and Sharon Kirkpatrick a rapid review on Low-calorie sweeteners and human health. We will be able to dive deeper into why this was the situation and what motivated them to work this portion of our contemporary dietary patterns. I look forward to having you listen in to our discussion.
Complementary feeding of infants and young children 6 to 23 months of age
This episode we speak with Chessa Lutter from RTI International and Laurence Grummer-Strawn from the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Nutrition about their paper in the August 2021 issue of Nutrition Reviews. Their paper is review about the complementary feeding with infants and young children 6 to 23 months of age. Their review identified 12 topics relevant for updating global guidance on complementary feeding which are clearly presented in the article. Join us in this conversation.
Food additive emulsifiers: a review of their role in foods, legislation and classifications, presence in food supply, dietary exposure, and safety assessment
This episode we speak with Selina Cox and Kevin Whelan from the Department of Nutritional Sciences at King's College London about their paper in the June 2021 issue of Nutrition Reviews. Their paper is review on the role of food additive emulsifiers and critical assessment of the current estimations of exposure to emulsifiers. Join us for this conversation.
Brain foods - the role of diet in brain performance and health
This episode we speak with Bo Ekstrand from Chalmers University of Technology about their paper in the June 2021 issue of Nutrition Reviews. This narrative review provides an overview of the role of diet in 5 key areas of brain function related to mental health and performance, including: (1) brain development, (2) signaling networks and neurotransmitters in the brain, (3) cognition and memory, (4) the balance between protein formation and degradation, and (5) deteriorative effects due to chronic inflammatory processes. Join us for this conversation.
Impact of omega-3 fatty acid DHA and EPA supplementation in pregnant or breast-feeding women on cognitive performance of children: systematic review and meta-analysis
This episode we speak with Anne Lehner and Dr. Nicole Bender about their paper in the May 2021 issue of Nutrition Reviews. Their paper was a systematic review and meta-analysis on the impact of omega-3 fatty acid DHA and EPA supplementation in pregnant or breast-feeding women on cognitive performance of children. Join us for this conversation.
Effects of macronutrient intake in obesity: a meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on markers of the metabolic syndrome
This month we go to The Netherlands and speak with Anouk Willems from the Groningen Institute for Evolutionary Life Sciences (GELIFES) – Neurobiology, University of Groningen and the Van Hall Larenstein University of Applied Sciences, Applied Research Centre Food & Dairy, Leeuwarden and Dr. Gertjan van Dijk who is also form the University of Groningen to discuss their paper on the Effects of macronutrient intake in obesity: a meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on markers of the metabolic syndrome which was written in collaboration with their colleagues Martina Sura–de Jong, André van Beek, and Esther Nederhof.
Assessing Nutrient Gaps and Affordability of Complementary Foods: New Methods and their Application in Different Settings
This episode provides the backstory for the development of the Comprehensive Nutrition Gap Analysis (CONGA) developed by the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) and UNICEF to better measure the number of children who are not meeting their nutritional needs. The development and use of CONGA are presented in a special supplement issue of Nutrition Reviews. Dr. Ty Beal from GAIN provides important insight on why this line of research was pursued and its implications as it relates to specific nutrients and also the income gap that is associated with the nutrition gap.
A conversation with Dr. Teruo Miyazawa about finding from the 8th International Conference on Nutrition and Aging
This episode is our first to highlight a Nutrition Review’s supplement. Dr. Teruo Miyazawa was the special guest editor for the proceeding of the 8th International Conference on Nutrition and Aging. Dr. Miyazawa is a Professor at Tohoku University and he provides how advances in nutritional sciences are helping extend healthy lifespans. The conference supported by ILSI Japan also provides important insight on why Japan is the country with the greatest life expectancy in the world.
Identifying the links between consumer food waste, nutrition, and environmental sustainability
This month we have the pleasure of speaking with Drs. Conrad Zach from William and Mary and Dr. Nicole Blackstone from Tufts University about how food waste effects not only the environment but also nutritional status and food security. Their insightful review provides not only evidence for people to reduce food waste but also in the podcast they provide practical examples for how to do it.
Effects of caloric restriction on human physiological, psychological, and behavioral outcomes: highlights from CALERIE phase 2
This episode is a discussion with Dr. James Dorling who is at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He along with co-authors from Pennington, Tufts University, Duke University and Washington University in Saint Louise provided a review on the effects of caloric restriction on human physiological, psychological, and behavioral outcomes with a special focus on results from the CALORIE Phase 2 study, a randomized control trial to determine the effect of reducing caloric intake by 20% on various markers of aging. We will discuss these key finding and what is next for us to learn about caloric restriction.
The implications of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 for at-risk populations
This episode we speak with article authors Dr. Rosemary Dall, Dr. Deeptha Sukumar, and Dr. Deborah Clegg about their article "The implications of vitamin D deficiency on COVID-19 for at-risk populations" to determine the current knowledge about the risk of COVID-19 development for populations at risk for vitamin D deficiency, including individuals living with overweight and obesity, those of older age, and racial or ethnic minorities.
A systematic review of the influences of food store product placement on dietary-related outcomes
This episode we speak with Sarah Shaw, Senior Research Assistant and PhD student, and Dr. Christina Vogel, Principal Research Fellow, at the MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton. Their paper is a systematic review aimed to determine how product placement strategies, availability, and positioning, in physical retail food stores located in high-income countries, influence dietary-related behaviors. Douglas Taren, host and Editor in Chief for Nutrition Reviews, asks the authors about their research, and their current and future endeavors.
Portion size estimation in dietary assessment: a systematic review of existing tools, their strengths and limitations
Portion size is an essential component of dietary assessment. However, methods of quantifying portion size can differ between studies. This episode, we speak with Dr. Birdem Amoutzopoulos, Dietary and Nutrient Data Manager at The Medical Research Center Epidemiology, University of Cambridge. She is the lead author for the article "Portion size estimation in dietary assessment: a systematic review of existing tools, their strengths and limitations" featured in the November 2020 print issue of Nutrition Reviews.
Current Explorations of Nutrition and the Gut Microbiome: A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Review Literature
The ability to measure the gut microbiome led to a surge in understanding and knowledge of its role in health and disease. The diet is a source of fuel for, and influencer of, composition of the microbiome. Join us for a discussion with authors Dr. Leigh A Frame and Dr. Scott A Jackson. Leigh A Frame, PhD, MHS, is the Director of The Office of Integrative Medicine and Health at George Washington University School of Medicine & Health Sciences. Scott Jackson, PhD, currently serves as the leader Microbiology group at the National Institute of Standards and Technology.
The effect of sucralose and aspartame on glucose metabolism and gut hormones.
Catch this month’s conversation with Dylan Mackay from University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. Dr. Mackay is a nutritional biochemist, specializing in human clinical trials and inter-individual variability. I focus on how phenotype and genotype modulate an individual's response to dietary interventions. The lead author of the paper, Dr. Samar Ahmad was unable join the conversation from her clinic in Kuwait. However, you are still in for a treat with the topic of this month’s episode on "The effect of sucralose and aspartame on glucose metabolism and gut hormones."
Influence of Nutrients involved in One-Carbon Metabolism on DNA Methylation in Adults - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Join the conversation with authors Diane Lees-Murdock and Sophia Amenyah with the Genomic Medicine Research Group at the University of Ulster, in Coleraine, North Ireland. Dr. Lees-Murdock is a Researcher and Senior Lecturer in Biomedical Sciences at the University of Ulster, and Dr. Amenyah is now a postdoctoral research fellow at Bournemouth University School of Health and Social Care. In our discussion, we find out more about the authors and the research that lead to their findings on associations between 1-carbon metabolism nutrients and DNA methylation.
Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive decline in non-demented adults
Join the conversation with author Anu Alex, from the University of Newcastle in the State of New South Wales, Australia. Anu is a doctoral student working in the laboratory of Dr. Manohar Garg who is one of the world’s leading researchers studying phytosterols, fatty acids, and other bioactive nutrients.