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Reviewer 2 does geoengineering

Reviewer 2 does geoengineering

By Reviewer 2

Reviewer 2 quibbles with actual experts in Solar Radiation Modification and Carbon Dioxide Removal, before rejecting their work on spurious, spiteful and capricious grounds. You'd expect nothing less from R2.
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Values and bias in CDR models - Hollnaicher, S

Reviewer 2 does geoengineeringDec 06, 2022

Seaweed fertilizers (and a kelp violin) - Sheppard
Sep 21, 202357:30
Who pays for historic CDR? Torvanger
Sep 09, 202301:03:29
Which US states will do CDR? Clarens
Sep 06, 202301:15:58
Space Spiders Save The World (really)

Space Spiders Save The World (really)

Two guests (with extremely complicated names) discuss the ludicrousest, amazingest paper we've ever had on the show. Yes, they're seriously asking: can we use spider's silk to make giant diffraction gratings for use in space? Amira Omer Mohamed Ahmed Salim Karlsson and Johanna D'Ciofalo Khodaverdian's bachelors' thesis is available at They were joined by their supervisor Christer Fuglesang, to make sure Reviewer 2 wasn't too mean to them.
Aug 25, 202301:03:16
Bach is back! Air/sea CO2 exchange

Bach is back! Air/sea CO2 exchange

Lennart Bach returns to discuss his modelling paper on ocean / atmosphere exchange of CO2 with @geoengineering1. Also included is enlightening discussion on getting drunk on expensive beer, whether Tasmania is any good, and if 6 peer reviewers really is enough. Paper: 'Identifying the most (cost-)efficient regions for CO2 removal with Iron Fertilization in the Southern Ocean" (
Aug 13, 202301:24:27
Mineral dust & geoengineering analogues - Kok

Mineral dust & geoengineering analogues - Kok

How does mineral dust affect the climate? (Slight cooling, but it's complicated) What do background variations in dust levels teach us about the likely effects of SRM & CDR? (Lots) Should we try to reduce anthropogenic mineral dust? (Probably not) How does reindeer poo fit into all of this? (You'll have to listen) Jasper Kok speaks to @geoengineering1 about his paper "Mineral dust aerosol impacts on global climate and climate change."
Aug 02, 202358:43
Aerosol plume modelling - Sun
Jul 30, 202301:22:04
BeZero: ratings agencies & CDR careers - Harvey
Jul 26, 202301:22:01
African farms & rock weathering - Boudinot
Jul 14, 202301:07:00
Biochar stability - Hagemann
Jun 26, 202301:26:15
Trapping CO2 into synthetic salts - Yavuz
Jun 15, 202347:40
Arctic geoengineering - Duffey
Jun 13, 202301:51:11
Parallel Carbon's ambient electrolysis DAC - Anderson

Parallel Carbon's ambient electrolysis DAC - Anderson

Ryan Anderson explains how Parallel Carbon calcines limestone at ambient temperature, using a membrane-free aqueous electrolysis process. Could this emergent technology be the cheapest and simplest way to integrate DAC with renewable energy?
Jun 10, 202301:00:36
Arctic ice management - Hotaling
May 31, 202301:16:02
Single hemisphere SRM & monsoons - Bala

Single hemisphere SRM & monsoons - Bala

Bala schools @geoengineering1 on the mechanisms behind the monsoon (Inter Tropical Convergence Zone, Indian Ocean Dipole, etc.), then explains what might go wrong if SAI is only done in the Northern Hemisphere. Paper: "Quantification of tropical monsoon precipitation changes in terms of interhemispheric differences in stratospheric sulfate aerosol optical depth" (
May 17, 202301:36:54
Marine CDR myths - Rohling
May 10, 202301:26:14
Surface albedo modification & heat islands - Feinberg

Surface albedo modification & heat islands - Feinberg

Alec Feinberg compares SAI with surface albedo modification, CDR, and space mirrors. In a rare moment of clarity, @geoengineering1 notices he isn't keeping up. Paper 1: Solar Geoengineering to Stop Annual Global Warming. Paper 2 Solar Geoengineering Modeling and Applications for Mitigating Global Warming: Assessing Key Parameters and the Urban Heat Island Influence, Frontiers in Climate,

Additional paper discussed Feinberg, Alec. 2023. "Urbanization Heat Flux Modeling Confirms It Is a Likely Cause of Significant Global Warming: Urbanization Mitigation Requirements" Land 12, no. 6: 1222.
May 02, 202301:16:55
Which nation will lead research? Horton
Apr 30, 202346:59
Scaling zeolite DAC, Removr - Tyssen

Scaling zeolite DAC, Removr - Tyssen

Einar Tyssen from talks about the firm and the plan to get zeolite DAC to 1Mtpa. Hosted by @geoengineering1. Part of Dirty Cash series on climate firms.
Apr 20, 202301:02:34
Liming the Amazon - Mu & Palter
Apr 01, 202337:19
SRM treaties - Lehmann
Mar 20, 202301:24:50
Adding CDR to GCAM IAM - Morrow
Mar 18, 202301:08:07
Foresting the deserts - Caldera

Foresting the deserts - Caldera

Is it practical and sensible to turn deserts into forests, using desalination & irrigation? Upeksha Caldera discusses her new paper with @geoengineering1. Paper "Afforesting arid land with renewable electricity and desalination to mitigate climate change" (
Mar 09, 202301:06:18
Does MCB actually work? Mahfouz

Does MCB actually work? Mahfouz

Naser Mahfouz explains some big problems with MCB to @geoengineering1. Can we fill in the knowledge gaps, before it's too late to use MCB? Paper: "The Radiative and Cloud Responses to Sea Salt Aerosol Engineering in GFDL Models" (
Mar 02, 202301:10:14
Slippery slope meets precautionary principle - Andow

Slippery slope meets precautionary principle - Andow

How can we merge the concepts of slippery slopes and the precautionary principle? James Andow explains how precautionary evaluation of risks can help us evaluate both the risks of ending up on a slippery slope to deployment, and the risks resulting from deployment. James argues that we need to concern ourselves with risks, not just inevitabilities, when considering slippery slopes. For additional reading discussed, see books "Innate" and "the WEIRDest people in the world". Paper: "Slippery Slope Arguments as Precautionary Arguments: A New Way of Understanding the Concern about Geoengineering Research" (
Mar 02, 202301:35:41
Un-do commercial enhanced weathering

Un-do commercial enhanced weathering

Un-do spreads crushed basalt on farms, and sells the carbon removals to Frontier. @geoengineering1 has concerns about scaling.
Mar 02, 202301:10:06
Zero pressure space sunshades - Hein
Feb 24, 202301:21:31
Iron salt aerosols - Fiekowsky

Iron salt aerosols - Fiekowsky

Peter Fiekowsky and @geoengineering1 discuss Iron Salt Aerosols. Do they work (in 14 different ways)? How can we know? Is Peter's new voluntary regulation body bona fide, or hopelessly compromised? Reviewer 2 asks all the important questions, but doesn't necessarily get definitive answers.
Feb 24, 202301:39:24
Counting trees - Liang

Counting trees - Liang

What counts as a tree, and how do you count trees? What do you do when you're surprised by a grizzly bear? How do you get data from despots? Will AI replace humans, when it comes to analysing ecological data? Do ecologists hibernate in winter? Jingjing Liang from Purdue answers all these questions, and more.
Feb 18, 202301:17:30
Heavy metal from weathering - Dupla
Feb 16, 202301:16:50


Good morning, Reviewer 2 listeners. This is Pete Irvine from Challenging Climate. I've been a little disappointed by the Reviewer 2 crew starting a turf war with us, so I've decided to finish it. Today, Jesse and I have paid their studios a little visit - and it's safe to say I don't think we'll be having much trouble from Reviewer 2 in future. Right now, Jesse has @geoengineering1 down in the basement. - showing him the error of his ways. I'm sure he'll learn very quickly. Now, we don't want trouble with other podcasts - but if trouble comes, we I can assure you that we're ready for it. While you're waiting for the dentist to put Andrew's teeth back in, I hope you enjoy the Challenging Climate episode on Great Barrier Reef MCB.
Feb 09, 202351:07
Local cooling, SAI, & CDR - Baiman
Feb 04, 202356:28
Breaking! DAC & public opinion - Nawaz, Todd & Satterfield
Feb 02, 202357:04
Room-temperature microwave DAC - Shi & Gray
Feb 01, 202301:13:55
Economic value of temporary CDR - Franks & Venmans
Jan 31, 202353:05
Temperature overshoot - Schwinger
Jan 27, 202301:16:50
SRM & justice for the global poor - Hourdequin

SRM & justice for the global poor - Hourdequin

Marion Hourdequin explains her paper, which criticised Horton & Keith's justifications for SRM research. Considering various types of justice, she explains why tech-bro solutions often meet such fierce resistance. Climate Change, Climate Engineering, and the ‘Global Poor’: What Does Justice Require? Marion Hourdequin
Jan 26, 202301:28:12
How to argue about SRM - Clark
Jan 24, 202301:47:15
Fertilisers & enhanced weathering - Wood
Jan 21, 202301:02:19
How to compare CDR approaches - Chiquier
Jan 16, 202301:07:60
Can YOU stop SRM? Viviani & Galpern

Can YOU stop SRM? Viviani & Galpern

Donn Viviani & Dan Galpern look at how individual petitioners could put an end to US firms' deployment of SRM. Background info provided by guests: Current petition and lawsuit available at In my 2015 petition I explicitly asked for a section 4 rule to develop data, if EPA lacked the information to make a risk finding. It could serve as a template for a geoengineering information request the denial is here Under the Administrative Procedure Act, any person may petition for the issuance, amendment, or repeal of a rule (5 U.S.C. 553(e)). The petition will be addressed to the Secretary of the Interior, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, DC 20240. see NEPA National Environmental Policy Act: Each Agency has it's out set of NEPA guidelines and policies Here is a good overview from an ngo EPAs NEPA guide is here When does NEPA apply to obligate a private actor to undertake environmental analysis? The US Council on Environmental Quality published a nice little Citizen's Guide to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 2007 and on p. 4 it noted, among other things, that: "[]Congress recognized that the Federal Government’s actions may cause significant environmental effects. The range of actions that cause significant environmental effects is broad and includes issuing regulations, providing permits for private actions, funding private actions, making federal land management decisions, constructing publicly-owned facilities, and many other types of actions. Using the NEPA process, agencies are required to determine if their proposed actions have significant environmental effects and to consider the environmental and related social and economic effects of their proposed actions. "NEPA’s procedural requirements apply to a Federal agency’s decisions for actions, including financing, assisting, conducting, or approving projects or programs; agency rules, regulations, plans, policies, or procedures; and legislative proposals.7 "NEPA applies when a Federal agency has discretion to choose among one or more alternative means of accomplishing a particular goal.8 Frequently, private individuals or companies will become involved in the NEPA process when they need a permit issued by a Federal agency. When a company applies for a permit (for example, for crossing federal lands or impacting waters of the United States) the agency that is being asked to issue the permit must evaluate the environmental effects of the permit decision under NEPA. Federal agencies might require the private company or developer to pay for the preparation of analyses, but the agency remains responsible for the scope and accuracy of the analysis."
Jan 13, 202301:51:25
Vorrath pt2 - Sex and slavery in academia

Vorrath pt2 - Sex and slavery in academia

Dr. Maria-Elena Vorrath
shares disturbing stories of sexual harassment and borderline modern slavery in academia. This episode also concludes discussion of PYMICCS from pt 1.
Jan 06, 202334:58
Vorrath pt1 - PYMICCS: enhanced weathering & biochar
Jan 06, 202354:24
Carbon taxes & CDR subsidies - Franks
Jan 04, 202301:32:05
IMPORTANT! Pioneers or pirates? Make Sunsets' sell & launch SAI

IMPORTANT! Pioneers or pirates? Make Sunsets' sell & launch SAI

Luke Iseman and Andrew Song from "Make Sunsets" explain why they've launched SAI balloons and sold cooling credits to customers.
Dec 31, 202202:08:14
Smet's2 - weathering trials in a Greek cotton field

Smet's2 - weathering trials in a Greek cotton field

After pausing to school @geoengineering1 on the rock cycle in pt1, Ingrid Smet from Fieldcode finally gets chance to describe her cotton field trials of enhanced weathering in Greece. useful links:

Fieldcode Climate Positivity efforts:
Why is Fieldcode setting up their own CDR project and how else do they contribute to CDR?

2021 Enhanced Weathering in Greece report:
Literally each and every detail on the setup of Greece’s first EW field experiment, including all scientific data gathered in 2021 – starting off with a general introduction to Enhanced Weathering and research done so far

Project Carbdown general blog page:
Short, informative, well explained blog posts about everything we learned and realised with regards to all aspects of EW since the start of Project Carbdown,

For example:

· Recent blog about the 1200 ton basalt to spread in 2023 with credits at 230 EUR/ton CO2:
Dec 23, 202201:39:23
Smet's1 - weathering & the rock cycle

Smet's1 - weathering & the rock cycle

Ingrid Smet brings @geoengineering1 up to speed on the chemical and geological processes behind enhanced weathering for carbon dioxide removal. Check pt2 for details of her experiment.
Dec 23, 202239:33
Who pays for CDR - Höglund
Dec 08, 202201:13:34
Values and bias in CDR models - Hollnaicher, S

Values and bias in CDR models - Hollnaicher, S

Do CDR models serve to entrench existing societal injustices, or challenge them? Simon Hollnaicher tries to explain the answer to @geoengineering1, who interrupts more often than a BBC Radio 4 news presenter. Paper: Hollnaicher, S. (2022). On economic modeling of carbon dioxide removal: Values, bias, and norms for good policy-advising modeling. Global Sustainability, 5, E18. doi:10.1017/sus.2022.16
Dec 06, 202201:00:27
Universal governance - Weil

Universal governance - Weil

Can one governance system rule all technologies? Gabriel Weil defends his universal framework in the face of an absolute onslaught from @geoengineering1. Main paper Global Climate Governance in 3D: Mainstreaming Geoengineering within a Unified Framework University of Pittsburgh Law Review, Vol. 81, No. 3, (2022) Other works discussed. The Carbon Price Equivalent: A Metric for Comparing Climate Change Mitigation Efforts Across Jurisdictions, 125 Dick. L. Rev. 475 (2021):,aggregate%20emissions%20over%20some%20period. Individual Preferences in Policy Analysis: A Normative Framework 50 Tᴇx. Eɴᴠᴛʟ. L.J. 55 (2020): Mitigating Climate Change Through Transportation and Land Use Policy, 49 Eɴᴠᴛʟ. L. Rᴇᴘ. 10473 (2019, with Alejandro E. Camacho, Melissa L. Kelly, & Nicholas J. Marantz): Incentive Compatible Climate Change Mitigation: Moving Beyond the Pledge and Review Model, 42 Wᴍ. & Mᴀʀʏ Eɴᴠᴛʟ. L. & Pᴏʟ'ʏ Rᴇᴠ. 923 (2018): Subnational Climate Mitigation Policy: A Framework for Analysis, 23 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 285 (2012): Costs, Contributions, and Climate Change: How Important Are Universal Emissions Commitments?, 23 Geo. Int'l Envtl. L. Rev. 321 (2011):
Nov 19, 202201:41:29